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Manitoba, Canada Bed Bug Registry Map Bed Bug …

Dear Bed Bug: We recognize that this issue is a potential problem every day, and do take it very serious. We as consumers have to remember that a Hotel itself does not have bedbugs; it unfortunately is brought to the hotel by a guest, either through their luggage or cloths Continue reading

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BED BUGS – Review of Victoria Inn, Winnipeg, Manitoba …

WINNIPEG The sniffing service dogs that were stolen Monday in Winnipeg are back at work Tuesday. Continue reading

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Bed bug detecting dogs back at work

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2011 Acute illnesses associated with insecticides used to control bed bugsseven states, 20032010. Continue reading

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Human Health Considerations: General Information, Multiple …

If you think you may have bed bugs, these are the essential dos and donts. Make sure you also look at the photos of bed bugs (and signs of bed bugs) and photos of bed bug bites, and the FAQ on detecting whether your problem is bed bugs, or something else Continue reading

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Bed bugs: dos and donts Got bed bugs? Bedbugger.com

By Matea Tuhtar With bed bug wars being waged elsewhere, Manitoba schools are turning their attention to remaining bug-free. Even though classroom infestations are rate, schools in the U.S. and Canada have reported finding bed bugs on school properties and some Manitoba schools have had close calls. Continue reading

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bed bugs – The Manitoba Teachers’ Society

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Invisible Bugs crawling on skin? Strange sensation …

I posted this info before, but it was a reply to someone else’s similar post…

I am a 23 year old healthy male. I recently had a full physical and the results were that I am in above average health. I have no diseases, do not use drugs, but drink on occasion.

Anyways, just started noticing these strange symptoms, within the past few weeks. Nothing “brought it on” so to speak that I can tell of. It’s been going on longer, but less noticeable, now since I do not talk sleeping meds any more, it’s all that I can notice…

Symptoms are strange sensations on my skin. The sensation is it feels like there are “invisible bugs” crawling on, and/or biting my skin. No actual bites, rashes, bugs, sores, or anything of the nature is ever visible. Occurs more at night, while laying down than any other time. The sensation occurs throughout my entire body, no area is exempt from this sensation, and it seems to be completely random, at times I’ll feel it on my arm, then my face, then leg, then arm again, etc, no pattern. The sensation “goes away” once I touch the area (either itch it, brush at it as if there WAS a bug I am brushing off, slap it, or touch it in any way…)

I’ve heard that various forms of dry skin, or minor allergic reactions to soaps could produce such a problem… I have not changed body soaps, shampoos, or laundry detergent types in quite a while (well before such symptoms) I do not have dry skin, or any type of rash.

Ruled out dry skin

I’ve read about “Morgellons” (years ago, before it was a mainstream idea) and don’t think that is what I have… I have no lesions, sores, boils, wounds, or anything of the sort, and no fibers protruding from anything.

Ruling out Morgellons.

I had read about the possibility of it being bed bugs (from reading sites like this online) so I tore my bedroom apart looking for signs of an infestation, and saw NOTHING. My mattress is brand new, the apartment I live in is also pretty close to brand new. Never the less, not a thing was found, searched mattress, box spring, walls near bed, everything.

Ruled out bed bugs.

The only other thing I’ve seen it could be is Restless Leg Syndrome. NOT sure about that, but I did hear that that sensation in the legs is a symptom of that, and that in some cases, the skin crawling sensation can occur all over the body, not just the legs, and still be considered RLS.

Undecided about RLS possibility.

The only other things I have going on that MAY be related, is an upper back pain/numbness… unknown cause. Been going on for years though. No diagnosis.

So basically I’m out of ideas, and about to go insane. It’s terrible at night not being able to sleep because of that feeling, and not being able to sleep with my girlfriend because I keep her awake with my constant moving around and itching…

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Think you have bed bugs? Some dos and donts

If you think you may have bed bugs, these are the essential dos and donts. Make sure you also look at the photos of bed bugs (and signs of bed bugs) and photos of bed bug bites, and the FAQ on detecting whether your problem is bed bugs, or something else. If you suspect there are bed bugs where you sleep, dont begin sleeping in another bed, on the sofa. Do not go to stay with someone else. The bugs may follow you to your guest room or sofa, and then it will be much harder to get rid of them. They may hitch a ride to your relatives home, and you can cause them to become infested. (All of these situations have happened to Bedbuggers we know.) Also, staying outside of your home means the bugs may become dormant. Were told they may live without feeding for up to 18 months. When you come back, they can begin biting you again. So staying in your home during treatment, and sleeping in your usual bed, is the way to kill bed bugs. Read our FAQs and sleep there while youre getting a Pest Control Operator (PCO) to treat your home. Once you are being treated, you must remain in the bedyou are the bait, attracting bugs to the poison and their deaths. If you isolate the bed, they need not bite you. (The FAQ on isolating the bed talks about the pros and cons of doing that).

Do save any bed bugs you find. Do not part with these you may need to show them to landlords, pest control professionals, and so on. Entomologists at colleges or science museums in your town may identify these, and a pest control company can too. Pick it up with clear packing tape, and tape it to an index card. Or put it in a clear sealed ziplock or jar in the freezer. Dont assume youll see lots of them, some people dont.

Do rule out other possible conditions, like folliculitis, scabies, and bites from other insects. Suspected bed bug bites sometimes turn out to be one of these other conditions. Doctors cannot diagnose bed bug bites with any certainty. The FAQs may help. Be warned, though, that many of us are told by doctors that we do or do not have bed bugs, and later find they are wrong.

Dont assume you are the only one being bitten. Remember that some people do not react to bed bug bites at all. Bed bug bites are an allergic reaction, and reactions vary from nothing to serious allergic reactions. Research released in 2010 by Dr. Michael Potter suggests 70% of people do react, and 30% of people do not react to bed bug bites.

Dont start throwing your bed and other furniture out. As per the FAQs, you can cover and isolate the bed. (You may wish to wait until a PCO has started treating before covering the mattress in an encasement.) Most furniture, including mattresses and sofas, can be treated by a PCO, and you can ask the PCO if throwing them out is necessary. It usually isnt necessary or recommended because tossing furniture and other items out can just lead to spreading bed bugs as well as emptying your home of furnishings. If there is a good reason to get rid of something, your pest management professional can help you do it safely, so as not to spread the bugs around your home or building, and so that others do not pick up infested items.

Dont start buying a load of chemicals and treating yourself. We have FAQs about choosing a good pest control firm and about why doing your own pest control in lieu of a PCO is not a good idea. Yes, sometimes supplementing a PCOs work makes sense, but only if they are fully on board with what youre doing. Remember, pesticides have different qualities (repellents, contact killers, residual killers, growth regulators, etc.) Bed bugs are probably the most complicated pests youve ever encountered at home. If you start spraying pesticides, you may disperse the bugs, and the professionals may have trouble treating them. You may spread them around your home. Get good professional help and follow instructions. Some pros wont treat a home if you have already done so.

Do not, absolutely do not release a fogger or bug bomb. Do not allow your landlord to do so. Do not allow a so-called exterminator to do so. Bug bombs / foggers do not work for bed bugs, and in fact, will spread them. Your problem will be magnified. Trust me!

Dont start bagging everything you own. With the exception of washed and dried clothing (according to specific instructions your PCO gives you), do not seal up everything you own in bags. Some PCOs will want you to inspect, vacuum, and seal all your possessions in bags. Most wont. Following their advice is crucial, since they know what theyre using on your problem. If you decide to bag things, you may be sealing away bed bugs and this is only a way of dealing with the problem if you put these items in storage for 18 months, unopened. Instead, most PCOs will vigorously fight your problem, and bed bugs will be attracted out of your possessions and towards poisons which will kill them. We have a FAQ on this also: How do I prepare for pest control treatment? Should I put everything in bags?

Do start dealing with your clothing and linens if the PCO requires this. Though you should not simply seal your possessions in bags (as above), it is probably a good idea to start working on clothing and bedding, if the PCO instructs you to do this. Note that some reputable pest control operators do not require most clients to treat all their clothing and linens. If your PCO does not require it, then I would skip it. You should take clothing and other items, wash on hot and and dry them on hot. Remember, driers vary as to their strength and how long they take with what size of load. Dont stuff the machines. My personal method is that items should at least be dried on hot for 20 minutes after they appear to be fully dry and very hot. Note that if you start with clean items, you only need to dry them on hot: this is a huge savings to time and energy. Starting with clean, dry items, running the hot dryer for 20 minutes should suffice. (You PCO may not be aware of research proving that a hot dryer alone is enough.) Keep in mind that pillows, comforters, down coats, and other thick items may take longer to dry. Heres the key: after washing and drying, bag items in sealed, airtight bags, and do not remove them until use. Our FAQs give more explicit suggestions. Dry cleaning is theoretically a bed bug killer, but impractical since most dry cleaners may not be equipped to deal with bed bugs, and you have to disclose that the items have been exposed to bed bugs.

Dont assume bed bugs are only in your bed. While bed frames and mattresses and headboards are the most likely location for bed bugs, they can and do often hide out in sofas and other soft furniture, electrical sockets (behind plates), light fixtures, baseboards, floor crevices, and other crevices in the bedroom and living room. Bed bugs are occasionally found in kitchens and bathrooms. This should not make you panic: most cases, especially smaller ones, are quite concentrated, usually 10-20 feet from where people sleep (or where they sit for extended periods). However, if a PCO tells you bed bugs are not found in living rooms, realize that many Bedbuggers have infested sofas, computer chairs, and so on. Dont believe that bed bugs only bite at night. They prefer a sleeping, stationary host who is fast asleep. But if theyre hungry, theyll take what they can get. You can be bitten while in a chair, awake.

Once you get a PCO treating your place, dont assume this will be solved overnight. If your PCO treats and you are still being bitten, this is normal. The bites should decrease and eventually disappear. If you see bed bugs or are bitten, do have another treatment about two weeks after the first. Do insist the PCO repeat treatment every two weeks until you see no new signs of bed bugs (like bed bug feces stains in the bed). Do not assume youve got a bad PCO because it takes three treatments to solve your problem. This, unfortunately, is common, even if you follow all the advice. However, do ask questions, from the first treatment on, and take notes: what is the PCO using? What does each substance do? Make a note of where each substance is applied, and how long the process takes. If a few treatments go by and you are suspicious, post a question in our forums with these details experienced Bedbuggers and reputable PCOs read this site and may be able to offer advice as to whether youre getting good service or not. Stay on top of whats happening, but be honest with the PCO about what youre doing, and ask what you can do to support treatment. If they are good, they will welcome your involvement. Vacuuming every day in some cases is a good idea, in others, it may sabotage the work of certain substances left down to kill bed bugs. The same is true of bagging everything you own, as above. Never assume that you should do what someone online is doing, since they may be working with a different pest control protocol.

Do use bed bug monitors to try and determine if bed bugs are present initially and after treatment. We have a FAQ on bed bug monitors. The beenfit to monitors is that youre more likely to catch a sample or see signs if you are using monitors.

Last updated 3/16/2015.

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Think you have bed bugs? Some dos and donts

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Cimici dei letti – Cimex lectularius

Cimex lectularius (ingl.: bed bug, ted.: Bettwanzen, franc.: cimice di letto, La cimice dei letti fa parte della famiglia delle Cimicidae (cimice piatta) dellordine degli insetti, che si specializzata quale ectoparassita ematofago degli uccelli, dei mammiferi e dell’uomo. Cimex lectularius, la cimice dei letti comune, ospitata quasi esclusivamente dall’uomo. Se questo non disponibile, le cimici dei letti succhiano anche il sangue degli animali domestici, del pollame, degli uccelli e dei pipistrelli. Cimex lectularius una specie ormai diffusa nel mondo intero e soprattutto nelle zone climatiche temperate del Nord-America, dell’Europa e dell’Asia centrale. Nelle regioni tropicali del Sud-America, dellAsia e dell’Africa, la cimice dei letti sostituita dalla cimice dei letti tropicale Cimex hemipterus per la quale i livelli di umidit e di temperatura richiesti sono un po pi elevati. Vengono spesso confuse con i parenti stretti delle cimici dei letti che attaccano pipistrelli ed uccelli

Distribuzione Le cimici dei letti penetrano in un nuovo domicilio come passeggeri clandestini con bagagli da viaggio e con oggetti vari quali: mobili, tappeti, materassi, quadri ed altri oggetti. Da li, sulle loro sei zampe, possono propagarsi attivamente. I rifugi preferiti dalle cimici dei letti sono nelle immediate vicinanze dei nostri letti o dei nostri divani, dove il loro ospite dorme. l che le cimici dei letti si rifugiano durante il giorno in fessure e cavit. Escono solamente la notte dai loro rifugi per nutrirsi di sangue. Si trovano cimici nelle pieghe dei materassi, in fessure e crepe nei castelli, nelle reti e dietro le testate dei letti, dietro i comodini, i quadri, le coperture o le tappezzerie scollate, sotto i battiscopa, in canali elettrici ed interruttori, nelle fessure di serramenti difettosi. I rifugi ed i sentieri delle cimici sono facilmente reperibili per le macchie scure dei loro escrementi (fig. 2). Da alcuni anni le cimici dei letti stanno guadagnando terreno nel mondo intero.

Alimentazione Tanto le ninfe quanto gli adulti succhiano di preferenza nell’oscurit. Alla temperatura ambiente la cimice dei letti adulta succhia del sangue ogni 3 a 7 giorni, ma quando la temperatura pi alta e l’ospite a disposizione, succhia pi spesso. Le larve devono nutrirsi di sangue prima di ogni muta. A riposo, piega il suo pungiglione sotto la sua testa ed il suo protorace. Per pungere, cerca un posto adeguato sulle parti libere del corpo, per esempio il collo, il viso, il petto, gli avambracci ed i polpacci. La pelle viene punta con uno stiletto formato da due tubicini capillari. Il labbro inferiore resta fuori. Attraverso questo doppio tubicino, da una parte viene iniettata saliva anticoagulante e dallaltra viene succhiato il sangue. Il processo di suzione dura da 3 a 20 minuti. La cimice dei letti punge sovente parecchie volte alla ricerca di un capillare. Le pruriginose pustole cos prodotte, della dimensione di una lenticchia fino ad una moneta da un centesimo, non sono tuttavia allineate come nel caso delle pulci. Generalmente non ci si accorge nemmeno della puntura. Reazioni della pelle, provocate dalla saliva delle cimici dei letti, cominciano solamente quando la cimice ha lasciato l’ospite e possono persistere per parecchi giorni.

Danni La reazione di una puntura di cimice dipende chiaramente dal grado di sensibilit dell’uomo punto. Nel caso di persone sensibili o allergiche, le punture possono portare ad estese infiammazioni della pelle ed a disturbi dello stato generale quali anafilassi o asma. Il forte prurito provoca lesioni dovute allintenso grattarsi (fig. 3). Dalle conoscenze acquisite fino ad oggi, le cimici dei letti hanno probabilmente solo un ruolo marginale nella trasmissione di malattie infettive. L’agente patogeno della febbre Q pu moltiplicarsi nell’intestino delle cimici dei letti. Pure il virus dell’epatite B stato isolato da cimici dei letti sud-africane. Le cimici dei letti devono essere considerate di conseguenza come vettori potenziali di questi agenti patogeni.

In caso di una forte infestazione, nel locale si sente uno sgradevole odore dolciastro. Questo odore proviene delle ghiandole che si trovano sul ventre del torace degli adulti e sul dorso dell’addome delle larve. Lasciano inoltre delle macchie scure dei loro escrementi sulla biancheria, sui sentieri di passaggio e davanti ai loro rifugi.

Aspetto le cimici dei letti subiscono un sviluppo incompleto (emimatabolico). Le ninfe hanno un aspetto molto simile agli adulti. Uovo le uova misurano fra 1.3 mm e 2.5 mm x 0.5 mm e vengono appiccicate alle pareti, dietro tappezzerie e nelle crepe. Larve i 5 stadi di sviluppo della ninfa sono simili nella forma. (fig. 5). Le dimensioni dei 5 stadi delle ninfe, a digiuno, sono: I, 1.3 mm,; II, 2.0 mm,; III, 3.0 mm,; IV, 3.7 mm,; V, 5 mm. Monconi di ali rudimentali sono visibili solamente sugli adulti. Adulto le cimici dei letti a digiuno hanno forma pi o meno ovale e le loro dimensioni sono le seguenti: il maschio 4.0-6.5 mm x 2.2-3.2 mm; la femmina 4.5-8.5 mm x 2.7-3.7 mm. Gonfie di sangue, possono raggiungere 9 mm di lunghezza distendendo i segmenti dell’addome come un telescopio. Sono molto appiattite, bruno-rossastre e dotate di peli. Dopo aver succhiato del sangue, sono di colore rosso scuro e fortemente ingrossate. La testa fissata al protorace (1 anello del torace) che sporge lateralmente ad essa. La placca dorsale denominata pronotum o piastra cervicale e, nelle cimici dei letti, il bordo frontale fortemente arcuato. Nella cimice dei letti tropicale il protorace meno arcuato e da perci limpressione di essere pi lungo e piuttosto rettangolare. (fig. 4 A e D). La testa ha due occhi composti sporgenti e due antenne da quattro segmenti di cui il 3 ed il 4 segmento sono molto pi fini del 1 e del 2. Il 2 segmento pi corto del 3 e questultimo met pi lungo del 4. Il pungiglione a riposo ripiegato sotto la testa ed il protorace (1 anello del torace). Il mesotorace (2 anello del torace) ha piccolissime ali rudimentali, mentre il metatorace (3 anello del torace) non ha n vere ali, n ali rudimentali. I maschi sono un po pi magri delle femmine e hanno posteriormente un piccolo organo copulatore a forma di stiletto.

Sviluppo La femmina depone le sue uova in crepe e fessure nelle vicinanze dellospite dove vengono saldamente incollate con un secreto acquoso. Con due pasti di sangue settimanali, una femmina pu deporre fino a 350 uova. La quantit di uova dipende dalla quantit di sangue assimilato prima della deposizione di uova. Luovo si schiude dopo 5.5 giorni a 28C fino a 48 giorni a 15C. Le larve, da giallastre a marroni, per nascere aprono un coperchio a cupola posto nella parte superiore delluovo. La ninfa somiglia molto all’adulto, tuttavia la sua taglia pi piccola e ha una cuticola pi debole che lascia trasparire lo stato di digestione del sangue ingerito. Il seguente elenco mostra la durata del ciclo completo di sviluppo alle differenti temperature: Sotto i 13C, lo sviluppo a riposo e a meno di 9C gli animali non si nutrono pi. La durata di vita di una cimice dei letti adulta dipende anche dalla temperatura ed di 9 – 18 mesi ad una temperatura di 18 – 20C e di 10 settimane ad una temperatura di 34C.

Biologia e comportamento i succhiatori di sangue sono attirati soprattutto dai corpi caldi che emanano CO2 e determinate sostanze attrattive. La quantit di un pasto sanguigno considerevole e pu raggiungere sei volte il peso del loro corpo. Una buona parte di acqua del sangue immediatamente rigettata velocemente, spesso addirittura mentre la cimice dei letti succhia. A questo scopo l’animale, ad intervalli di 1 a 2 minuti, fa evacuare dallano dapprima i vecchi resti dei precedenti pasti e poi gocce dacqua chiara. I succhiatori di sangue, come le cimici dei letti, che si nutrono esclusivamente di sangue durante tutta la loro vita, hanno nel loro intestino dei microrganismi come simbiotici per fornire le sostanze mancanti nel sangue. Se la cimice dei letti ha fame, pu intraprendere migrazioni a distanze stupefacenti.

Ecologia La cimice dei letti attiva di notte e si nasconde durante il giorno. Evita i posti freddi ed umidi. La cimice dei letti adulta pu sopportare il freddo per lunghi periodi, ma non sopporta l’umidit e leccessiva calura. A bassa temperatura, le cimici dei letti possono sopravvivere senza cibo fino ad un anno. La temperatura mortale intorno a 43C per alcuni minuti.

Misure da prendere in primo luogo esistono misure preventive che possono impedire un’infestazione. La propagazione delle cimici dei letti ha luogo sia attivamente da oggetti infestati nelle vicinanze, sia passivamente per trasporto con oggetti usati o nei bagagli. Dato che un’infestazione pu essere causata anche da uccelli nelle vicinanze dell’oggetto, i pollai, le colombaie ed i nidi di uccelli devono essere inglobati nel trattamento. In caso di puntura da cimice dei letti durante un viaggio, si consiglia un accurato controllo dei bagagli al rientro a casa. Se il risultato positivo, assolutamente necessario un trattamento dei bagagli prima che essi vengano introdotti nell’abitazione. All’introduzione fra le proprie quattro mura di mobili, materassi ed altri oggetti usati, questi sono da esaminare attentamente e/o eventualmente da trattare. Per una lotta efficace, si devono trovare tutti i nascondigli delle cimici dei letti. La ricerca deve comprendere anche i doppi soffitti, i pavimenti rialzati ed i locali adiacenti. Il trattamento con prodotti chimici deve coprire tutti i nascondigli possibili. Le superfici del castello del letto che entrano in contatto con la biancheria da letto e le persone che vi dormono, non devono essere trattate. La biancheria da letto pu essere lavata a 60C, i materassi possono essere sottomessi ad un trattamento appropriato a caldo, a freddo, a gas o essere lavati. Da poco si propongono trattamenti termici per il locale, completo del suo contenuto. Poich l’eliminazione delle cimici dei letti molto esigente, essa da effettuare in modo professionale da personale specializzato.

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Bedbugs – San Diego County, California

Bedbug Facts Bedbugs are small, brownish flat bugs that feed only on the blood of humans and animals. They are roughly the size of a ladybug, with small eyes and a large antennae.They can not fly, but move quickly over floors, walls, ceilings and other surfaces.

The most common type of bedbug that bites human is the Cimex Lectularius. It is found in North America, Europe and Central Asia. They are not known to transmit any diseases to humans.

Bedbugs infestations were common in the United States before WWII. As cleanliness improved, and with the use of DDT in the 1940’s and 1950’s, the bugs almost disappeared.

The presence of bedbugs has recently started to rise throughout the United States, but they are still very rare.

Bedbug Bites Bedbugs usually bite people at night while they sleep. They will feed anywhere on the body where the skin is exposed. They feed by biting through the skin with a long beak that they use to draw the blood. It takes about ten minutes for the bugs to swell up. Some people develop an itchy welt from bedbug bites.

Where They Come From Although it seems as though bedbugs have come out of nowhere, they are usually brought into the home on luggage, clothing, used beds and used furniture. Traveling to different areas of the world, such as places in Asia, Europe, the Caribbean or Central and South America are often a common source.

High Risk Places Hotels, motels and apartments are the most likely places to encounter bedbugs because of their high turnover rate. Once bedbugs are introduced, they spread from room to room. The cleanliness of the building is not always a factor.

When staying in a hotel, check for bedbugs in between the mattress and the box spring.

Bedbugs move quickly and it does not take long before they get intoyour luggage. Keep your luggage off of the floor.

Signs of Bedbug Activity Bedbugs are most active at night. They hide during the day where humans tend to sleep, like beds or couches. Their flat bodies help them fit into tiny areas. Their favorites places to hide are in mattresses, (especially around the seams) box springs, bed frames and behind head boards.

An easy way to tell if you have bedbugs is by seeing dark spotting and staining on your mattress. It is caused by their droppings. Also, you might see the eggs and eggshells, molted skins of aging nymphs and the bugs themselves.

If you have a large number of bedbugs, there may be a sweetish odor, although this is not always easy to smell. Bedbugs normally start off in the bed, but they will spread around the house and hide in small crevices.

Bedbug Prevention

In order to reduce bedbugs in the home, follow the following steps:

Bedbug Control The only way to remove bedbugs from your home is by using insecticides. Household surface sprays containing Malathion or Pyrethrum can be somewhat effective, but they may not remove the full infestation. It is recommended that you contact a licensed pest control company for the treatment of bedbugs.

Bed Bug Life Cycle

Female bedbugs can lay from 1-12 eggs each day. The eggs are dropped on rough surfaces or in cracks and crevices. Their eggs are coated with sticky glue and hatch in anywhere from 6-17 days. Then they turn into nymphs where they have different stages each needing a blood meal. They reach adulthood between 5 weeks to 4 months depending on how much food they have had and temperature. They can live around 12-18 months and over three generations can occur in one year.

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Bedbugs – San Diego County, California

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Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) and clinical consequences of …

CONTEXT:

Bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations are rapidly increasing worldwide. Health consequences include nuisance biting and cutaneous and systemic reactions. The potential for bed bugs to serve as disease vectors and optimal methods for bed bug pest control and eradication are unclear.

To present current knowledge of the health and medical effects of bed bugs and to explore key issues in pest control and eradication efforts.

A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1960-October 2008) for articles using the keywords bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, humans, parasitology, pathogenicity, and drug effects. For pest control, PubMed and Toxline searches (1960-October 2008) were performed using the keywords bed bugs, Cimex, control, prevention, and eradication. Manual searches of older journals, textbooks, pest control trade journals, and newspapers (1892-October 2008) were also performed.

Original accounts or investigations of bed bugs, clinical responses with sufficient detail of cause and effect between the bed bug bite and clinical response, and convincing evidence of substantiated presence of bed bug exposure. For pest control, documentation that an eradication measure quantitatively decreased bed bugs.

A trained medical reference librarian assisted with the literature search. Two authors with expertise in the diagnosis, treatment, and eradication of bed bugs reviewed the clinical articles. One author evaluated the pest control articles.

Fifty-three articles met inclusion criteria and were summarized. Only 2 clinical trials concerning bed bugs were identified and tested the ability of pest control interventions to eradicate bed bugs. Although transmission of more than 40 human diseases has been attributed to bed bugs, there is little evidence that they are vectors of communicable disease. A variety of clinical reactions to bed bugs have been reported, including cutaneous and rarely systemic reactions. A wide range of empirical treatments, including antibiotics, antihistamines, topical and oral corticosteroids, and epinephrine, have been used for bite reactions with varying results. No evidence-based interventions to eradicate bed bugs or prevent bites were identified.

Treatment options for cutaneous and systemic reactions from bed bug bites have not been evaluated in clinical trials and there is no evidence that outcomes differ significantly from those receiving no treatment. Evidence for disease transmission by bed bugs is lacking. Pest control and eradication is challenging due to insecticide resistance, lack of effective products, and health concerns about spraying mattresses with pesticides.

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Cimicidae – Wikipedia

The Cimicidae are a family of small parasitic insects that feed exclusively on the blood of warm-blooded animals. They are called cimicids or, loosely, bed bugs (or bedbugs or bed-bugs), though the latter term properly refers to the most famous species of the family, Cimex lectularius, the common bed bug. Around 90 species are placed in the family Cimicidae.[2]

All cimicids are small, oval-shaped, and flat in appearance, although their bodies bulge after feeding. They do not fly, but do have small, nonfunctional wing pads. They also have beak-like mouth parts with which they pierce the skin and suck the blood of their hosts.[3]

Cimicids practice traumatic insemination. Although the female has a normal genital tract for laying eggs, the male never uses it (except in the species Primicimex cavernis), instead piercing the female’s abdominal wall; the sperm then migrate through the female’s paragenital system.

Feeding is required for egg production in females and possibly for sperm production in males. Egg-laying behavior varies among species. C. lectularius stops laying fertile eggs about 35 to 50 days after the last insemination. The swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius, hibernates after mating in autumn and begins laying in spring, to coincide with the return of the host.

The five nymphal instars (stages) must each take a blood meal to develop to the next stage. Adults have been reported to live 3-12 months in an untreated household situation. A given undisturbed bug may take 3-15 minutes to take a full meal depending on its life stage. They can survive long periods of time without feeding, reappearing from their hiding places when hosts again become available. They have special scent glands and often emit a characteristic odor that can usually be detected in heavily infested sites. Dark fecal spots on bedding or bedclothes, pearly white eggs (1 mm long), and papery yellowish cast skins are other signs of infestation often found in cracks or crevices.

Cimicidae are easily repelled by lavender, mint, and an excessive heat.

Cimicids are relatively specialized in their choice of hosts, compared to other bloodsucking insects. Most cimicids have a preferred host, but accept some others when presented with the choice, such as C. lectularius and C. hemipterus, which are most often found among humans, but can also survive by feeding on birds, bats, rabbits, and mice. Some subfamilies are restricted to certain types of bats, while one species, P. cavernis, appears to accept only one species of host.

Host switching is dependent on several factors, including overlap in host detection cues and ability to digest different kinds of blood. For example, the red blood cells of chickens are about 3 to 5 m longer in diameter than those of humans, making human blood more suitable for the narrow food canal of C. lectularius. C. hemipterus may be able to vary the size of its food canal, allowing it greater flexibility in its choice of hosts. Preference for a host species can vary between populations of a given species; the causes for this are unclear.

Cimicids are attracted to hosts by a variety of cues, including heat (even a temperature difference of 1C) and kairomones. Host cues (at least in some species, including C. lectularius and Stricticimex antennatus) change from attractants to repellants after a cimicid has fed, causing it to move out of a danger zone after feeding.

Most cimicids feed once every 3 to 7 days in natural conditions. C. lectularius normally feeds once every 7 days and Ornithocoris toledoi every 8 days, though C. hemipterus has been observed feeding every day for several days (in hot climates). Excessively hot or cold temperatures disrupt normal behavior.

Although viruses and other pathogens can be transmitted to cimicids, they rarely transmit them to their hosts. O. vicarius is a vector of several arboviruses, but is not killed by these viruses. Trypanosoma cruzi, the trypanosome that causes Chagas disease, is rarely transmitted from cimicids to bats, but it has not been observed replicating after such transmission. The viruses HIV and hepatitis B can persist in C. lectularius for two weeks, but with no viral replication. The possibility of these and most other viruses being transmitted from C. lectularius to humans is considered extremely remote.[4][5][6]

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Cimicidae – Wikipedia

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Bed Bug FAQs | New York State Integrated Pest Management

Some fast bed bugfacts What do bed bugs look like? Briefly: 1/4 long, oval, flat, 6 legs, and reddish-brown.

A bed bug has 6 legs. Its antennae point forward and are about half as long as the bodynot longer. Its head is broadly attached to its body and it has no wings. Eight legs indicate a tick or mite. Six legs and long antennae with two spikes coming off the back (cerci) might be a roach nymph. Carpet beetle larvae have hairs all over their bodies. Carpet beetle adults have two hard wings.

A drop of blood with legs is probably a recently fed bed bug. It will be red, plump, and oval. After it digests its meal, itll be mahogany-colored, round, and flat. Unfed nymphs are tan. Eggs are oval, white, and stick to whatever theyre laid on.

You can see the adultstheyre about 1/4 long. The trick is finding their hiding spots. They can wedge themselves into any crack or crevice. If the edge of a credit card can fit, so can a bed bug. Eggs and just-hatched nymphs are tiny: 1/16 (1mm) longthe size of the R in LIBERTY on a penny. Theyll plump up after feedingjust like a mosquito.

Bed bugs crawlscurrying into dark, tight spaces to hidethey move as fast as an ant. They cant jump or fly and youll never find them burrowing into your skin. If the insect you have came out on its own accord at night when the lights were out near the bed or a couch, it was probably a bed bug looking for a meal. Bed bugs arent social insects like ants, so they dont need a colony. But while they group together in good hiding spots, loners could be hiding elsewhere.

More on bed bug biology (and yes, it matters): they have an odd way of making babies. Its called traumatic insemination. Males simply stab females in the side with their reproductive organ and inject their sperm, which makes its way to her eggs. Females recover from one mating, but several matings increase the chance of infection and death. Females may try to get away from groups of males and go off and hide alone to avoid being stabbed to death. If you dont find those females, theyll keep laying eggs and could restart an infestation: a good reason to get a pest management professional (PMP) involved. Good PMPs know how to find them and how to target every hiding place without harming people.

If the bugs you think are bed bugs come in the spring but go away during the summer they might be bat bugs. Bats in attics hibernate elsewhere during the winter. Bat bugs that are left behind and chill out for the winter, literally, but if warm weather comes before the bats return, they may seek another host to tide them over. In this scenario, inspect the attic and external wall voids for bat guano and bugs in cracks and crevices. Have a professional treat these roosts as well as the rooms bed bugs were found in. To prevent bat re-entry, repair all holes 1/4 or larger that lead to the outside.

Bed bugs are also known as: Cimex lectularius, chinches de camas, chintzes or chinches, mahogany flats, red coats, crimson ramblers, wall lice, the bug that nobody knows, lentils on legs, animated blood drops.

Got a question that you think should be here? E-mail us and well get it posted ASAP. If its urgent, try bedbugger.com.

If you ever heard that nursery rhyme “Good night, sleep tight, dont let the bed bugs bite, you know these critters bite in the night. But most of us never heard of them in real life until now.

The serious negative effects of bed bugs are more mental than physical, but the itchy bites cant be ignored either.

The mental effects are stress and lack of sleep. (And then theres delusory parasitosismeaning the bugs really are gone, but you cant shake the feeling that theyre still there.) Even if the thought of sleeping with bed bugs doesnt keep you up at night, the time and money it takes to get rid of them can stress you out.

Bed bugs can be a public relations nightmare. Youd hope customers would respect a proactive hotel, motel, or landlord who tried to educate them before a problem came in, but thats rarely the case. Simply the mention of bed bugs can deter customers.

And householders worry what friends, family, and neighbors will say if their problem becomes known. Bed bugs arent associated with filth or social status, but many people think they are.

Bed bugs arent known to transmit disease. And some people dont even get marks when bit. But scratching bites can lead to a secondary infection. Resist the urge to scratch. People with health problems and children are more at risk for infection because their immune systems are compromised or they cant stop scratching.

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You cant describe the bites as looking only one way. Some look and feel like mosquito or flea bites. Some people dont react at all. On the opposite extreme, others get big itchy welts that take two or more weeks to heal. Theres a myth that bed bug bites occur in threes (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), but its not true. Bites can occur singly, in clumps, or in a line. Bites can show up within hoursor two weeks later. Confirming an infestation on bites alone is impossible. You need evidence: a bed bug.

Bed bugs usually feed while people sleep, about an hour before dawn. But if theyre hungry and given the opportunity, they feed anytime. Feeding itself is painlessthe bed bugs saliva numbs the skin and makes the blood easier to drink. But later, many people react to the saliva, getting itchy bumps or rashes. After feeding for about five minutes, drawing only a drop or two of blood, bugs return to their hiding places. Although bed bugs can live for over a year without feeding, they typically seek blood every five to ten days.

The only way to know for sure what bit you is to find a bug and get it identified.

Bed bugs live off only bloodlike mosquitoes do. They probably prefer to feed on people. But if people move out, bed bugs can survive by feeding on rats or miceso control these pests, too. Theyre attracted by warmth and the presence of carbon dioxidewhat we animals breathe out. They usually feed about an hour before dawn, but given the opportunity, they may feed at other times of day or night.

Remembernot everyone reacts to bed bug bites. (Not everyone reacts to poison ivy, either.) You could get an itchy rash while your home companion getsnothing.

If you think bed bugs bit you, have a PMP do a thorough inspection to determine whether an arthropod is in your living space, or send samples to a diagnostic lab.

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Bed bugs may have evolved when a close relative, the bat bug, switched to feeding off cave-dwelling humans. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans wrote about them. They were part of many peoples lives in the U.S. and around the world before World War II.

Then DDT came along. DDT seemed wonderful at the time. Unlike most of the insecticides sold in stores today, DDT had a lasting effecta long residual effect. Insects died when they crawled where DDT was used, even if it had been there for weeks. Though most homeowners used DDT for large pests like cockroaches, it did the bed bugs in too. When the bed bugs came out to feed, there was something there to kill them.

Modern furnishings and appliances helped too. Bed bugs dont care if a home is clean or messy. They just like good hiding spotsand food. When modern furniture came into style they had fewer hiding spots. Home appliances such as washing machines and vacuums helped keep them at bay. Bed bugs were a rarity in the US from the early 1950s through the late 1990s. A whole generation of people grew up whod never seen one.

By the mid 1970s insecticides like DDT, which were blamed for environmental problems, were on the outs. The pest control industry began to use the environmentally friendly approaches common today. Using noninsecticide traps and monitors, blocking entry into homes, and using pest-specific, least-toxic insecticides became the staples of an integrated pest management approach.

Bed bugs had been off the radar for so long they were almost forgotten. By the time anyone noticed, they were back in a big way. Right now there are no traps or monitors proven to detect a population when its still small. And since bed bugs travel on things such as luggage, souvenirs, and furniture we bring into our homes, its hard to block their entry.

Fortunately, some modern insecticides work well. Because these insecticides break down quicklymaking them safer for humansthey may not be around to kill the bed bugs that hatch from eggs laid before the insecticide was applied. Two or more carefully targeted applications are the best way to eliminate bed bugs. Leave insecticides to the professionalseven the right ones, used incorrectly, can scatter bed bugs to other rooms. It would take an extremely capable and dedicated person to learn and do everything necessary to get rid of bed bugs on their own.

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Any place with a high turnover of people spending the nighthostels, hotels near airports, and resortsare most at risk. But the list continues apartments, barracks, buses, cabins, churches, community centers, cruise ships, dormitories, dressing rooms, health clubs, homes, hospitals, jets, laundromats, motels, motor homes, moving vans, nursing homes, office buildings, resorts, restaurants, schools, subways, theaters, trains, used furniture outlets. Bed bugs dont prefer locations based on sanitation or peoples hygiene. If theres blood, theyre happy.

Bed bugs and their relatives occur nearly worldwide. They became relatively scarce during the latter part of the 20th century, but their populations have resurged in recent years, particularly throughout parts of North America, Europe, and Australia.

What about in your home? Most stay near where people sleep, hiding near the bed, a couch or armchair (if thats where you snooze)even cribs and playpens. Their flat bodies allow them to hide in cracks and crevices around the room and in furniture joints. Hiding sites include mattress seams, bed frames, nearby furniture, or baseboards. Clutter offers more places to hide and makes it harder to get rid of them. Bed bugs can be found alone but more often congregate in groups. Theyre not social insects, though, and dont build nests.

How infestations spread through a home or within an apartment building differs from case to case. Inspect all adjacent rooms. Bed bugs travel easily along pipes and wires and the insides of walls can harbor them.

Before treating, you need to confirm that you have bed bugs. The only way to do that is to find a bug and get it identified.

Look in the most likely places first. We tell you how. If you find one, freeze it for identification or put it in a sealed jar with a 1 tsp. of rubbing alcohol. Then stop lookingyou dont want to disrupt the bugsand call a professional.

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Look for bed bugs in all their life stages: eggs, nymphs and adults. Also look for cast skins and blood spots. But note: blood spots, hatched eggs, and cast skins may be from an infestation thats been dealt with already. Live bed bugs are the only confirming evidence. Use a flashlighteven if the area is well litand work systematically. A magnifying glass will help you zoom in on hard to see spots. Start with one corner of the mattress and work around the piping, down the sides, and underneath. Do the same with the box spring. If you own the bed, slowly remove the dust cover (ticking) on the bottom of the box spring and seal in a trash bag. Next, inspect the bed frame. If you can take it apart, do so. Bed bugs could be hiding in the joints.

No bed bugs yet? Work out from the bed in a systematic way (clockwise or counter-clockwise) to the walls of the room. Look in the pleats of curtains, beneath loose pieces of wallpaper near the bed, the corners and drawers of desks and dressers, within spaces of wicker furniture, behind door, window, and baseboard trim, and in laundry or other items on the floor or around the room such as cardboard boxes. Inspect everything. Any crack, crevice, or joint a credit card edge could fit in could hide adult bed bugs. This routine gives you a systematic approach and increases the chance youll find evidence early on.

One last way to inspectabout an hour before dawn, lift the sheets and turn on a flashlight. It might lead to a discovery, but this method can also be unsettling.

If you dont find bed bugs but bites continue or you find blood spots on bedding, contact a professional with bed bug experience and have them inspect.

Professional inspection may be done by a person or by a bed bug-sniffing dog and its handler. Dogs have a powerful sense of smell and can be trained to find bed bugs (which do give off an odor). Theyre best used to find infestations. If used to tell whether bed bugs are gone, they may find old evidence rather than fresh. If you hire a handler and dog, be sure theyre accredited.

If you find bed bugs at home, its best to keep sleeping in the bedor try to find someone who will sleep there. Packing up to spend time elsewhere could bring bugs to an uninfested area. And the bugs could move to neighboring rooms in search of a meal.

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Put specimens in small, break-resistant containers such as a plastic pill bottle or a zipper-lock bag with 1 tsp of rubbing alcohol in it. Or tape them to a sheet of white paper with clear tape.

First, look at pictures on university websites. If you think its a bed bug, package it carefully to prevent damage and send to an expert for positive identification. Bed bugs have close relatives: poultry bugs, barn swallow bugs, bat bugs, and tropical bed bugs to name a few. They too can feed on humans and act like bed bugs do. For accurate identification, send a samplepreferably several adultsto a Cooperative Extension diagnostic lab.

If the critter is, for example, a bat bug, call a professional wildlife control operator to find and remove bats, then prevent their re-entry.

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Bed bugs come in as stowaways in luggage, furniture, clothing, pillows, boxes, and more when these are moved between dwellings. Moving out wont solve the problem, since bed bugs will just come with you. In fact, while dealing with bed bugs its best not to sleep away from home. Used furniture, particularly bed frames and mattresses, are most likely to harbor bed bugs. Watch out for items found on the curb! Because they survive for many months without food, bed bugs could already be present in clean, vacant apartments.

In a few cases, bats or birds could introduce and maintain bed bugs and their close relativesusually bat bugs and bird bugs.

The source of the infestation determines where your inspection should start. Look through these scenarios and see which fits:

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Insecticidal dusts will remain effective if not covered by other dust. As part of the IPM approach, routine spraying of insecticides is strongly discouraged. Bed bugs do not spread disease, but insecticides do pose risks. Only use them when the pest insect is confirmed and the least-toxic steps have been tried. As a preventative measure alternative to insecticides, inspect and clean regularly, keeping bed bug-hiding spots in mind.

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Every traveler should learn about bed bugs. Always inspect before settling into any room. Pack a flashlight (even the keychain LED variety) and gloves to aid in your inspection. The inspection should focus around the bed. Start with the headboard, which is usually held on the wall with bracketslift up 1 2 inches, then lean the top away from the wall to gain access to the back. If youre traveling alone, someone on staff should help. After checking the headboard, check sheets and pillows for blood spots. Next, pull back the sheets. Check the piping of the mattress and box spring. Finally, look in and under the drawer of the bedside table. If all these places are clear, enjoy the night. The next morning, look for blood spots on the sheetsbed bugs poop soon after they feed.

If you find evidence, but no live bed bugs, the evidence may be old and doesnt mean that the hotel is dirty. Tell the front desk discreetly what you found and ask for another roomone that doesnt share a wall with the room you just vacated. Bed bugs are a PR nightmare for the hospitality industry. If you run to a competitor (whos just as likely to have bed bugs) it makes it less likely that the industry will become more open about this issue. Communication is key. Ideally hotels and motels would pride themselves on their bed bug programs and show customers how to inspect to keep all parties bed bug free.

If you can avoid it, dont unpack into drawers and keep luggage closed on a luggage rack pulled away from the wall. Never set luggage on the bed.

Download and print a copy ofNYS IPMs travelers cards.

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Launder your clothes before or as soon as these items are brought back into the home. If you found bed bugs after moving into a hotel room, you could ask the hotel to pay for launderingand for steam-cleaning your luggage. The hotel may refuse, but its worth asking. Regardless, once home you should unpack on a floor that will allow you to see bed bugsstay off carpets! Unpack directly into plastic bags for taking clothes to the laundry. Suitcases should be carefully inspected and vacuumedfreeze if possible.

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Its unlikely that a bed bug would travel on you or the clothes you are wearing. You move too much to be a good hiding place. Bed bugs are more likely to be spread via luggage, backpacks, briefcases, mattresses, and used furniture.

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Adults are , reddish-brown and flat. You can see them without magnification.

They like to hide in cracks and crevices.

Inspect sleeping areasif you find a bed bug, STOP looking and contact a professional.

Do-it-yourself pest control could make bed bugs to spread. Launder and freeze when possible.

Live bugs or eggs may drop off while moving things from one place to anotheritems with bed bugs should be sealed in a bag before moving them.

Avoid used furniture and items left on the curbthey might have bed bugs!

Tell your friends! Not warning others robs them of the chance to avoid bringing bed bugs into their homes and businesses.

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Step back a minute. Because several different kinds of insects resemble bed bugs, specimens should be carefully compared with good reference images and sent to a professional entomologist.

Next: make a plan. Well tell you how. You want to get rid of bed bugs, limit your exposure to insecticides, and minimize costs. Dont get rid of stuff and dont treat unless you have a plan. A big part of your plan: hire an experienced professional. Trust us, itll save you time and money in the long run. Youll still have a lot to dojust leave the insecticides to the pros. Working as a team with a professional is the quickest way to get bed bugs out of your life.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the way to go for pest control. Its cost-effective, it works, and it lessens reliance on insecticides. Note: IPM doesnt mean no insecticides. You should call a professional dedicated to IPM so the least amount of insecticides can be used and still work.

Inspection:ALWAYS inspect. Proper identification helps you know what to do and where to target your efforts. Along with looking, you should write down what you do and see. Use this reporting form to track what youve done. Having a history will help if more people become involved.

Educate yourself:find out about bed bug biology and behavior to become even more effective.

Cultural and Mechanical Control:This makes your home unwelcoming to bed bugs, blocks them from feeding, or at least makes finding them easier. Dont skip these steps and go straight to insecticides. Examples:

Biological Control:No known biological control agents target bed bugs well enough to keep them at bay.

Chemical Control:Insecticides supplement but dont replace your work. Get a pest management professional (PMP) involved. Licensed PMPs know what products, in what formulations, should be usedand where. PMPs know how to be selective and effectivefewer insecticides used and best results. Any insecticide used should be labeled for the pest and location where it is being used. Many products are not labeled for mattresses.

Hire only professional pest control companies with licensed PMPs who are affiliated with a state or national association. This helps ensure that the company stays up-to-date on the current practices and only uses legal insecticides. PMPs are trained for sensitive situations: people who are ill, children, pregnant women, pets, and more. They know how to properly apply insecticides. They also know best how to find bed bugs. PMPs will not use illegal insecticides. If you use insecticides but they dont work and then you still have to call in a professional, overall insecticide use will be higher. Plus, what you used could drive bed bugs into new areasmaking removal a longer and pricier process.

Monitoring:This involves inspecting regularly to be sure:

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The question, Whos responsible for a bed bug infestation? has no clear answer. Its hard even to identify whos technically at fault because bed bugs can enter a space in so many ways. Landlords and property owners do have legal obligations to provide safe and habitable accommodations for tenants. Bed bugs may be an unacceptable condition. Tenants have an obligation to cooperate with owners and landlords. This includes preparing the apartment so the pest management professional can easily inspect rooms and treat if necessary.

You are legally liable if you misapply an insecticide or apply it without a license to the property of othersincluding common spaces in apartment buildings. In most cases, landlords, owners and building managers cannot legally apply insecticides unless they are licensed to do so.

Laws are changing and every situation is different. Local health departments and law offices have the best answers to legal questions. The only thing thats for sure is that bed bug problems wont just work themselves out. Left untreated, they will spread. The best way to cover all bases is to inform all who are potentially involved early onmanagers, neighbors, friends

Landlords and tenants should make sure bed bug work is specified in their lease. For example, an agreement that requires tenants to do thorough preparation for bed bug treatment and to leave the living space while a pest management professional (PMP) works can go a long way if bed bugs arrive. The PMP should visit all rooms or units that share a wall (including directly above and below). Everyone needs to cooperate. Having a plan ready can save time, frustration, and money.

If you are a landlord, inspection should be done often with the permission of the tenant. Some tenants will not view bed bugs as a problem. It can get ugly if their infestation spreads to other units and unhappy tenants report that they have bed bugs. Inspect often to find infestations before they spread.

Safety is always the #1 priority. Bed bugs arent known to spread disease. Dont put yourself or PMPs in danger on account of bed bugs. Anyone who inspects apartments must be cautious of sharp objects or weapons under mattresses or in furniture. Always look with a flashlight before touching.

Document ALL prevention and control in a unit. This helps prove you took precautions and helps PMPs evaluate the situation.

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Dont put the legs of the bed frame in kerosene or coat them with petroleum jelly. Bed bugs have been known to climb on the ceiling and drop down onto the bed. Plus kerosene is a fire hazard.

Dont depend on thyme oil. Thyme oil may discourage bed bugs, but it wont kill them. Chances are itll spread, not fix, the problem.

Dont leave the home unoccupied through a winter as a control measure. Bed bugs have adapted to the unpredictable habits of humans. If given time to go dormantfor example, in a vacation cabin that slowly gets cooler, then cold over fall and winterbed bugs can survive, living without a meal for many months while waiting for humans to return. The quick penetration of killing cold (or heat) is the key to any temperature treatment.

Dont turn up the heat. Exposing bed bugs to 120 F or more an hour will kill all life stagesand whole-structure or container heat treatments do work. But the caution is similar to using cold. High heat must be maintained at every point in the building: the outer walls, deep in the sofa, etc. for the full hour. Professionals enclose the structure, using tools to guarantee that it reaches the right temperature. If you go with a full-structure heat treatment, consider if the heat could damage furniture, appliances, and belongings.

Dont sleep with a light on. Bed bugs feed when hosts are inactive. Usually thats when its darkbut theyll feed under lights if theyre hungry.

Dont sleep in a different room. Bed bugs will move to a neighboring room if they cant find food. And they can live months between meals. Sleeping in a different room, staying at a hotel, or moving in with friends wont solve the problem. And the chances of carrying the bugs to a new place are good. Keep sleeping in your bed. If you have awful reactions to the bites, try to get someone to sleep in the bed.

Dont throw a bed bug-infested mattress away and buy a new mattress. Buying a new mattress wont solve the problem. Bed bugs hide in more than just mattresses. New mattresses might be transported in the same trucks that pick up used and possibly contaminated ones. If you need a new mattress, wait until the infestation is eliminated before buying a new one. (Remember: A bed bug-proof mattress and box-spring encasement kept in place for 1 years will starve them to death. Inspect often for torn spots in the encasement (and evidence of bed bugs).

Dont dispose of good furniture. Infested furniture can be cleaned and treated. Placing infested furniture (particularly mattresses) into common areas or on the street could spread bed bugs to other peoples homes. If youre getting rid of infested furniture, deface it: make it less attractive to other people. Paint a picture of a bug on it and write bed bugs or chinches. Building managers should make sure disposed furniture is in a dumpster or taken to a landfill or waste facility right away.

Dont wrap items in black plastic and leave them in the sun: it needs to get hotter than that to kill bed bugs, and heat needs to evenly penetrate the entire item.

Dont move infested items out of the room without wrapping them in plastic. Bed bugs or eggs could be knocked off into an uninfested area.

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Bed Bug FAQs | New York State Integrated Pest Management

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Scherzinger – Bed Bugs | Bed Bugs Services | OH | KY …

Although bed bugs are not known to transmit or spread diseases, according to the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and CDC (Centers for Disease Control) they are still considered a public health pest parasites that feed on blood and cause a variety of physical, mental and economic problems. They are among the most serious and unsavory pests, but ones that our team of pest management professionals is highly skilled at quickly and effectively exterminating.

Using traditional methods along with Heatigation, our signature controlled heat treatment that destroys bed bugs in all stages of life, we have cemented our position as the true industry leaderswhen it comes to effectively, discretely and affordably eliminating bed bugs. For your home or business, our family knows how to help yours with any bed bug problem, from protection to detection to elimination:

Let us turn up the heat on your bed bug problem. Call us to talk in person or request a quote customized to your needs.

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Bed bug control techniques – Wikipedia

Bed bugs, or cimicidae, are small parasitic insects. The term usually refers to species that prefer to feed on human blood.

Early detection and treatment are critical to successful control. According to a survey, the most commonly infested places are the mattress (98.2%), boxspring (93.6%), as well as nearby carpets and baseboards (94.1%).[1] In fact, bed bugs thrive in areas where there is an adequate supply of available hosts, and plenty of cracks and harborages within 1.5 metres (4.9ft) of the host.[2]

Because treatments are required in sleeping areas and other sensitive locations, methods other than chemical pesticides are in demand. Treatments can be costly, laborious, time consuming, repetitive, may entail health risks, and cause embarrassment to the person affected.

Bed bug infestations spread easily in connecting units and have negative effects on psychological well-being and housing markets. In response, many areas have specific laws about responsibilities upon discovering a bed bug infestation, particularly in hotels and multi-family housing units, because an unprofessional level of response can have the effect of prolonging the invisible part of the infestation and spreading it to nearby units.

Common laws include responsibilities such as the following: Lessors must educate all lessees about bedbugs, lessee must immediately notify lessor in writing upon discovery of infestation, lessor must not intentionally lease infested unit, lessee must not intentionally introduce infested items, lessor must eradicate the infestation immediately every time it occurs at a professional level including all connecting units, and lessee must cooperate in the eradication process.[citation needed]

In a 2015 survey, reports of bed bug infestation in social media lowered the value of a hotel room to $38 for business travelers and $23 for leisure travelers.[3]

Mapped bed bug reports graphically illustrate how difficult it can be to eliminate bed bugs in densely populated areas where many people live in adjacent units like in New York City, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.[4]

Though commonly used, the pesticide approach often requires multiple visits and may not always be effective due to pesticide resistance and dispersal of the bed bugs. According to a 2005 survey, only 6.1% of companies claim to be able to eliminate bed bugs in a single visit, while 62.6% claim to be able to control a problem in 23 visits.[1] Insecticide application may cause dispersal of bed bugs to neighbouring areas of a structure, spreading the infestation.[1]

Furthermore, the problem of insecticide resistance in bed bug populations increases their opportunity to spread. Studies of bed bug populations across the United States indicate that resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, which are used in the majority of bed bugs cases, is widespread.[1][5]Exterminators often require individuals to dispose of furniture and other infested materials. It is advisable to break or mark these infested items to prevent their being unintentionally recycled and furthering the spread of bed bugs.

The well-established resistance of bed bugs to DDT and pyrethroids has created a need for different and newer chemical approaches to the extermination of bed bugs. In 2008 a study was conducted on bed bug resistance to a variety of both old and new insecticides, with the following results, listed in order from most- to least-effective: -cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, carbaryl, imidacloprid, fipronil, permethrin, diazinon, spinosyn, dichlorvos, chlorfenapyr, and DDT.[6] Note that the first of these, -cyhalothrin, is itself a pyrethroid-based insecticide in the past it has been used principally for the treatment of cotton crops and so bed bugs have not developed a genetic resistance to it.

The German Federal Institut for Consumer Health Protection and Veterinary Medicine approved the following three agents for the treatment of bedbugs in 2000:

Up until the 90ies chlorpyrifos was used as an agent with longterm effect, but the EC biocide declaration 98/8 prohibited the use from August 2008 onward.[8]

Some manufacturers also offer fumigants containing sulfuryl fluoride.[9]

Non-residue methods of treatment such as steaming and vacuuming are preferable to the contamination of mattresses, pillows and bed covers with insecticides. The possible health effects of pesticides on people and pets ranging from allergic reactions to cancer have to be considered,[10] and acute neurotoxicity.[11][12][13] as well as the dispersal of bed bugs to neighbouring dwellings due to repellent effects of insecticides.

Bedbugs prefer to hide in and around the bed frame but it can still be a good idea to put a tight cotton cover on mattress and bedding to prevent access.

Bed bugs are developing resistance to various pesticides including DDT and organophosphates.[14][15] Some populations have developed a resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Although now often ineffective, the resistance to pyrethroid allows for new chemicals that work in different ways to be investigated, so chemical management can continue to be one part in the resolving of bed bug infestations.[16] There is growing interest in both synthetic pyrethroid and the pyrrole insecticide, chlorfenapyr. Insect growth regulators, such as hydroprene (Gentrol), are also sometimes used.[17]

Populations in Arkansas have been found to be highly resistant to DDT, with an LD50 of more than 100,000 ppm.[18] DDT was seen to make bed bugs more active in studies conducted in Africa.[19]

Bed bug pesticide-resistance appears to be increasing dramatically. Bed bug populations sampled across the U.S. showed a tolerance for pyrethroids several thousand times greater than laboratory bed bugs.[20] New York City bed bugs have been found to be 264 times more resistant to deltamethrin than Florida bed bugs due to mutations and evolution.[21] Products developed in the mid 2010s combine neonicotinoids with pyrethroids, but according to a January 2016 survey published by the Journal of Medical Entomology, bed bug resistance in two major US cities now includes neonicotinoids.[22]

A population genetics study of bed bugs in the United States, Canada, and Australia using a mitochondrial DNA marker found high levels of genetic variation.[23] This suggests the studied bed bug populations did not undergo a genetic bottleneck as one would expect from insecticide control during the 1940s and 1950s, but instead, that populations may have been maintained on other hosts such as birds and bats. In contrast to the high amount of genetic variation observed with the mitochondrial DNA marker, no genetic variation in a nuclear RNA marker was observed. This suggests increased gene flow of previously isolated bed bug populations, and given the absence of barriers to gene flow, the spread of insecticide resistance may be rapid.

Isolation of humans is attempted with numerous devices and methods including zippered bed bug-proof mattress covers, bed-leg moat devices, and other barriers. However, even with isolated beds, bed bug infestations persist if the bed itself is not free of bed bugs, or if it is re-infested, which could happen quite easily.[24]

It is convenient to place medium-sized belongings in sealed transparent plastic bags (such as plastic bags for freezing; larger models exist as well). Once closed, the tightness should be verified by pressing the bag and ensuring that air doesn’t exit. It is as well convenient to mark these sealed bags as ‘contaminated’/’decontaminated’.

Inorganic materials such as diatomaceous earth or silica gel may be used in conjunction with other methods to manage a bed bug infestation, provided they are used in a dry environment. Upon contact with such dust-like materials, the waxy outer layer of the insect’s exoskeleton is disrupted, which causes them to dehydrate.[25]

Food-grade diatomaceous earth has been widely used to combat infestations. However, it can take weeks to have a significant effect. Studies examined and compared diatomaceous earth and synthetically produced, pure amorphous (i.e. non-crystalline) silica, so-called silica gel. They investigated the use of these substances as a stand-alone treatment in real-life scenarios, and compared them to usual poisonous agents. They found that the effect of diatomaceous earth was surprisingly low when used in real-life scenarios, while the synthetic product was extremely effective and fast in killing bed bugs in such settings.[26][27]

Silica gel was also more effective than usual poisonous pesticides (particularly in cases with pesticide resistant bugs). When applied after being mixed with water and then sprayed, the outcome for silica gel was significantly lower, but still distinctly better than for the natural silica (used dry). Authors argued that the reason for the poor outcome for diatomaceous earth as a stand-alone treatment was multi-factorial. When tested in laboratory where the bed bugs had intensive, prolonged contact with diatomaceous earth and no access to a host, diatomaceous earth performed very well. Silica gel, on the other side, performed in vitro consistently well even if applied to bed bugs in extremely low doses and with very slight and short (often only seconds or few minutes) contact to the substance.[26][27]

Although occasionally applied as a safe indoor pesticide treatment for other insects, boric acid is ineffectual against bed bugs because bed bugs do not groom.[28]

A traditional Balkan method of trapping bed bugs is to spread bean leaves in infested areas. The trichomes (microscopic hooked hairs) on the leaves trap the bugs by piercing the tarsi joints of the bed bug’s arthropod legs. As a bug struggles to get free, it impales itself further on the bean leaf’s trichomes. The bed bugs and leaves then can be collected and destroyed.[29][30][31] Researchers are examining ways to reproduce this capability with artificial materials.[29][31]

Many claims have been made about essential oils killing bed bugs. However, they are unproven. The FTC is now filing a suit against companies making these claims about these oils, specifically about cedar, cinnamon, lemongrass, peppermint, and clove oils.[32]

Disposal of items from the contaminated area can reduce the population of bed bugs and unhatched eggs. Removal of items such as mattresses, box springs, couches etc. is costly and usually insufficient to eradicate infestation because of eggs and adults hiding in surrounding areas. If the entire infestation is not eliminated prior to bringing new or cleaned personal and household items back into a home, these items will likely become infested and require additional treatment.[33]

Treating clothing, shoes, linens, and other household items within the affected environment is difficult and frequently ineffective because of the difficulty of keeping cleaned items quarantined from infestation. Many bed bug exterminating specialists recommend removing personal and household items from the infested structure. Many metropolitan areas offer more effective treatments such as high-heat dryers and dry cleaning with PERC with the added benefit of the treated items remaining stored until the affected home’s bed bug infestation is eradicated.[33]

The improper disposal of infested furniture also facilitates the spread of bed bugs. Marking the discarded items as infested can help prevent infesting new areas. Items may also be sealed in plastic and stored until all eggs hatch and all larvae and adults have died.[citation needed] Bed bugs can go without feeding for 20 to 400 days, depending on temperature and humidity. Older stages of nymphs can survive longer without feeding than younger ones, and adults have survived without food for more than 400 days in the laboratory at low temperatures. Adults may live up to one year or more, and there can be up to four successive generations per year.[34]

Vacuuming helps with reducing bed bug infestations, but does not eliminate bed bugs hidden inside of materials. Also, unless the contents of the vacuum are emptied immediately after each use, bedbugs may crawl out through the vacuum’s hoses and re-establish themselves. Vacuuming with a large bristle attachment can also aid in removing hidden bugs as well.

Steam treatment can effectively kill all stages of bed bugs. To be effective, steam treatment must reach 150170 degrees Fahrenheit (65 – 75 degrees C) for a sustained period. Unfortunately, bed bugs hide in a diversity of places, making steam treatment very tedious, labour-intensive and time consuming. There is also the risk of the steam not penetrating materials enough to kill hidden bed bugs. The steam may also damage materials such as varnished wood, or cause mold from the moisture left behind. Effective treatment requires repeated and very thorough steaming of the mattress, box spring, bed frame, bed covers, pillows, not to mention other materials and objects within the infested room, such as carpets and curtains.

Infested clothes can be effectively treated by a high-temperature ironing with vapor. If performed meticulously, this method yields faster disinfection compared to high-temperature washing in a washing machine. However, attention should be paid in order to avoid bedbug escape from the ironed clothes.

For volumetric objects (e.g. pillow, blanket, sleeping bag, rug), boiling in a large saucepan for more than 10 minutes represents a reliable method. In this manner, the lethal temperatures propagate with certainty deep inside the object, which is not necessarily the case of a washing machine cleaning cycle.

For smaller objects, pouring boiling water from a kettle onto the object located in a basin may be enough to kill beg bugs and eggs.

Clothes dryers can be used for killing bed bugs in clothing and blankets. Infested clothes and bedding are first washed in hot water with laundry detergent then placed in the dryer for at least 20 minutes at high heat.[35] However, this does not eliminate bed bugs in the mattress, bed frame and surrounding environment. Sterilized fabrics from the dryer are thus easily re-infested. Continually treating materials in this fashion is labour-intensive, and in itself does not eliminate the infestation.

Placing belongings in a hot box, a device that provides sustained heat at temperatures that kills bedbugs, larvae, and eggs, but that does not damage clothing, is an option. Pest control companies often rent the devices at nominal cost and it may make sense for frequent travelers to invest in one.[citation needed]

This method of bed bug control involves raising room temperatures to or above the killing temperature for bed bugs, which is around 45C (113F).[36] Heat treatments are generally carried out by professionals, and may be performed in a single area or an entire building. Heat treatment is generally considered to be the best method of eradication because it is capable of destroying an entire infestation with a single treatment.

HEPA air filtration is normally used during any heat treatment to capture particulate and biological matter that may be aerosolized during the heating process.

Bed bugs can be killed by a direct one-hour exposure to temperatures of 16C (3F), however, bed bugs have the capacity for rapid cold hardening, i.e. an hour-long exposure to 0C (32F) improved their subsequent tolerance of 14 to 16C (7 to 3F),[37] so this may need to be maintained for longer. Freezer temperatures at or below 16C (3F) should be sufficient to eliminate bed bugs and can be used to decontaminate household objects. This temperature range should be effective at killing eggs as well as all stages of bugs.[38] Higher temperatures however are not effective, and survival is estimated for temperatures above 12C (10F) even after 1 week of continuous exposure.[38]

This method requires a freezer capable of maintaining, and set to, a temperature below 16C (3F). Most home freezers are capable of maintaining this temperature.

Preliminary research has shown the fungus Beauveria bassiana, which has been used for years as an outdoor organic pesticide, is also highly effective at eliminating bed bugs exposed to cotton fabric sprayed with fungus spores. It is also effective against bed bug colonies due to the spores carried by infected bugs back to their harborages. Unlike typical insecticides, exposure to the fungus does not kill instantly, but kills bugs within five days of exposure. Some people, especially those with compromised immune systems, may react negatively to the concentrated presence of the fungus directly following an application.[39]

Early research shows that the common drug taken to get rid of parasitic worms, ivermectin (Stromectol), also kills bed bugs when taken by humans at normal doses. The drug enters the human bloodstream and if the bedbugs bite during that time, the bedbug will die in a few days. Stromectol is also effective against mosquitoes, which can be useful controlling malaria.[40]

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Bed bug control techniques – Wikipedia

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