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Bed bug infestation – Wikipedia

A bed bug can individually and collectively cause a number of health effects including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms.[1] Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.[2]:446 Diagnosis involves both finding bed bugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms.[1] Treatment involves the elimination of the insect but is otherwise symptomatic.[1]

Because infestation of human habitats has been on the increase in developed countries, bed bug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well, since the 1980s1990s.[3][4] The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides.[4][5] Bed bugs have been known human parasites for thousands of years.[3]

Individual responses to bites vary, ranging from no visible effect (in about 2070%),[1][3] to small macular spots, to prominent wheals and bullae formations along with intense itching that may last several days.[1] The bites often occur in a line. A central hemorrhagic spot may also occur due to the release of anticoagulants in the saliva.[4]

Symptoms may not appear until some days after the bites have occurred.[1] Reactions often become more brisk after multiple bites due to possible sensitization to the salivary proteins of the bed bug.[3] The skin reaction usually occurs in the area of the bite which is most commonly the arms, shoulders and legs as they are more frequently exposed at night.[1] Numerous bites may lead to an erythematous rash or urticaria.[1]

Serious infestations and chronic attacks can cause anxiety, stress, and insomnia.[1] Development of refractory delusional parasitosis is possible, as a person develops an overwhelming obsession with bed bugs.[6]

A number of other symptoms may occur from either the bite of the bed bugs or from their exposure. Anaphylaxis from the injection of serum and other nonspecific proteins has been rarely documented.[1][7] Due to each bite taking a tiny amount of blood, chronic or severe infestation may lead to anemia.[1]Bacterial skin infection may occur due to skin break down from scratching.[1][8] Systemic poisoning may occur if the bites are numerous.[9] Exposure to bed bugs may trigger an asthma attack via the effects of airborne allergens although evidence of this association is limited.[1] There is no evidence that bed bugs transmit infectious diseases[1] even though they appear physically capable of carrying pathogens and this possibility has been investigated.[1][3] The bite itself may be painful thus resulting in poor sleep and worse work performance.[1]

Bed bug bites are caused by bed bugs primarily of two species Cimex lectularius (the common bed bug) and Cimex hemipterus.[3]Infestation is rarely due to a lack of hygiene.[10] These insects feed exclusively on blood and may survive a year without eating.[3] They are attracted by body warmth and carbon dioxide.[4] Transfer to new places is usually in the personal effects of the human they feed upon.[3]

Dwellings can become infested with bed bugs in a variety of ways, such as:

A definitive diagnosis of health effects due to bed bugs requires a search for and finding of the insect in the sleeping environment as symptoms are not sufficiently specific.[1] Other possible conditions with which these conditions can be confused include scabies, allergic reactions, mosquito bites, spider bites, chicken pox and bacterial skin infections.[1] Bed bugs classically form a line of bites colloquially referred to as “breakfast, lunch, and dinner” and rarely feed in the armpit or behind the knee which may help differentiate it from other biting insects.[4] If the number in a house is large a pungent sweet odor may be described.[4]

Treatment requires keeping the person from being repeatedly bitten and possible symptomatic use of antihistamines and corticosteroids (either topically or systemically).[1] There however is no evidence that medications improve outcomes and symptoms usually resolve without treatment in 12 weeks.[3][4]

Avoiding repeated bites can be difficult, since it usually requires eradicating bed bugs from a home or workplace; eradication frequently requires a combination of pesticide and non pesticide approaches.[3] Pesticides that have historically been found to be effective include pyrethroids, dichlorvos and malathion.[4] Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time and there are concerns of negative health effects from their usage.[3] Mechanical approaches such as vacuuming up the insects and heat treating or wrapping mattresses have been recommended.[3]

Bed bugs occur around the world.[15] Rates of infestations in developed countries, while decreasing from the 1930s to the 1980s, have increased dramatically since the 1980s.[3][4][15] Previous to this they were common in the developing world but rare in the developed world.[4] The increase in the developed world may have been caused by increased international travel, resistance to insecticides, and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bed bugs.[5][16] The fall in bed bug populations after the 1930s in the developed world is believed to be partly due to the usage of DDT to kill cockroaches.[17] The invention of the vacuum cleaner and simplification of furniture design may have also played a role.[17] Others believe it might simply be the cyclical nature of the organism.[18]

Bed bugs have been known to be a human parasite for thousands of years and many different methods have been attempted to deal with them.[3]

Plants traditionally used as bed bug repellents include black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), Pseudarthria hookeri, and Laggera alata (Chinese yngmo co | ), though information about their effectiveness is lacking.[19]Eucalyptus saligna oil was reported by some Zairean researchers to kill bed bugs, among other insects.[20][21]

In the 18th century, turpentine was used in combination with henna (Lawsonia inermis) flowers and alcohol, as an insecticide that also reputedly killed bed bug eggs.[22]

Other items that were believed to kill bed bugs in the early 19th century include “infused oil of Melolontha vulgaris” (presumably a kind of cockchafer), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), Actaea spp. (e.g. black cohosh), tobacco, “heated oil of Terebinthina” (i.e. true turpentine), wild mint (Mentha arvensis), narrow-leaved pepperwort (Lepidium ruderale), Myrica spp. (e.g. bayberry), Robert Geranium (Geranium robertianum), bugbane (Cimicifuga spp.), “herb and seeds of Cannabis”, “Opulus” berries (possibly a kind of maple, or European cranberrybush), masked hunter bugs (Reduvius personatus), “and many others.”[23] In the mid-19th century, smoke from peat fires was recommended.[24]

The use of black pepper to repel bed bugs is attested in George Orwell’s 1933 non-fiction book Down and Out in Paris and London.

Dusts have been used to ward off insects from grain storage for centuries, including “plant ash, lime, dolomite, certain types of soil, and diatomaceous earth (DE) or Kieselguhr”.[25] Of these, diatomaceous earth in particular has seen a revival as a non-toxic (when in amorphous form) residual pesticide for bed bug abatement. Insects exposed to diatomaceous earth may take several days to die.[25]

Basket-work panels were put around beds and shaken out in the morning, in the UK and in France in the 19th century. Scattering leaves of plants with microscopic hooked hairs around a bed at night, then sweeping them up in the morning and burning them, was a technique reportedly used in Southern Rhodesia and in the Balkans.[26]

The rise in infestations has been hard to track because bed bugs are not an easily identifiable problem. Most of the reports are collected from pest-control companies, local authorities, and hotel chains.[27] Therefore, the problem may be more severe than is currently believed.[28]

Bed bugs are an increasing cause for litigation.[29] Courts have, in some cases, exacted large punitive damage judgments on some hotels.[30][31][32] Many of Manhattan’s Upper East Side home owners have been afflicted, but they tend to be silent publicly in order not to ruin their property values and be seen as suffering a blight typically associated with the lower classes.[33]

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Bed bug infestation – Wikipedia

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Bed Bugs – Pest Control in Framingham & Worcester MA

Bed bugs have made a recent comeback in the United States. While they are mainly active at night you may occasionally see them during the day. During the daytime they hide close to where people sleep generally in the mattress, box spring , headboard and night stand. They will often be found in the mattress seam and the plastic box spring corner guards. They are sometimes found in picture frames, under carpets and in drop ceilings. Generally they stay close to the bed or couch unless dispersed with sprays or Bug Bombs. They dont have nests, but will spread out near their feeding area. Eventually they spread to adjacent rooms or apartments. They can spread quickly throughout a building by crawling and hitching a ride on people. We are experts in controlling infestations of bed bugs.

The first step is for a proper inspection of all rooms in the house or apartment. Ransford will provide a free estimate in our service areas. If Bed Bugs are found our technician will quote the cost and leave a prep sheet. If visual inspection fails to find Bedbugs Ransford recommends the FMC Bedbug Verify trap. These traps provide monitoring for 90 days using 2 different lures. Please call for pricing info. On treatment day you will need to leave for approximately 4 hrs. Our team will come in and thoroughly apply material to all areas in the rooms. This includes removing outlet switch plates and installing dust into the wall voids. We will treat and cover any box springs and mattresses with cloth Bedbug covers. We schedule a follow up visit in 30 days and stand behind our work for a full 90 days (if you find live bedbugs after second treatment we will retreat for free).

Thinking of heat treatment for Bed bugs? Make sure you ask the company if they are using chemicals pre and post treat (most companies do!). Lets face it, the reason most people think about heat treatment is for chemical free Bed bug control. Since Bed bugs are very good at finding cool spots, there are companies that use chemicals before and after the heat treatment to control them. So if this is the case, why spend all the extra money on heat treatment?

We all agree that there are certain places were a chemical treatment should be used as a last resort. Places like cribs, infant carriers, strollers, car seats and wheelchairs to name just a few. By using high temp, low moisture steam we can kill Bed bugs instantly, and sanitize their fecal matter at the same time. Since there is no residual chemical, cribs would need Bed bug interceptors placed under the legs to keep them pest free. Please give us a call and ask us how Steam Spot Treatments alongside a conventional treatment can help control your Bed bug problem.

By now we all know that there are different strands of Bed bugs just in the USA. Each strand can have a different response to a particular product (resistant). By using multiple products during the 2 separate treatments, Ransford Environmental Solutions Inc. can help combat Bed bug resistance.

The most important step is to catch Bed bugs EARLY!!!!! Do not ignore them! Early treatment will keep a few, from becoming an INFESTATION. If you think you have bed bugs, contact us. Send us a picture or bring a sample to our office. We offer pest identification free of charge.

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Bed bug – Wikipedia

Bed bugs are parasitic insects of the cimicid family that feed exclusively on blood. Cimex lectularius, the common bed bug, is the best known as it prefers to feed on human blood. Other Cimex species specialize in other animals, e.g., bat bugs, such as Cimex pipistrelli (Europe), Cimex pilosellus (western US), and Cimex adjunctus (entire eastern US).[2]

The name bed bug derives from the preferred habitat of Cimex lectularius: warm houses and especially near or inside beds and bedding or other sleep areas. Bed bugs are mainly active at night, but are not exclusively nocturnal. They usually feed on their hosts without being noticed.[3][4][5]

A number of adverse health effects may result from bed bug bites, including skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms.[6] Bed bugs are not known to transmit any pathogens as disease vectors. Certain signs and symptoms suggest the presence of bed bugs; finding the adult insects confirms the diagnosis.

Bed bugs have been known as human parasites for thousands of years.[7] At a point in the early 1940s, they were mostly eradicated in the developed world, but have increased in prevalence since 1995, likely due to pesticide resistance, governmental bans on effective pesticides, and international travel.[8][9] Because infestation of human habitats has begun to increase, bed bug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well.[7][10]

Diagnosis of an infestation involves both finding bed bugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms.[6] Treatment involves the elimination of the insect (including its eggs) and taking measures to treat symptoms until they resolve.[6]

Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.[11] Effects include skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms.[6]

Although bed bugs can be infected with at least 28 human pathogens, no studies have found that the insects are capable of transmitting any of these to humans.[10] They have been found with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)[12] and with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), but the significance of this is still unknown.[13]

Investigations into potential transmission of HIV, MRSA, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E have not shown that bed bugs can spread these diseases. However, arboviruses may be transmissible.[14]

Adult bed bugs are light brown to reddish-brown, flattened, oval-shaped, and have no hind wings. The front wings are vestigial and reduced to pad-like structures. Bed bugs have segmented abdomens with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 45mm (0.160.20in) long and 1.53mm (0.0590.118in) wide.

Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color, and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. A bed bug nymph of any age that has just consumed a blood meal has a bright red, translucent abdomen, fading to brown over the next several hours, and to opaque black within two days as the insect digests its meal. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects, such as booklice, small cockroaches, or carpet beetles; however, when warm and active, their movements are more ant-like and, like most other true bugs, they emit a characteristic disagreeable odor when crushed.

Bed bugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nesting locations, feeding, and reproduction.

The lifespan of bed bugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding.

Bed bugs can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions.[15] Below 16.1C (61.0F), adults enter semihibernation and can survive longer; they can survive for at least five days at 10C (14F), but die after 15 minutes of exposure to 32C (26F).[16] Common commercial and residential freezers reach temperatures low enough to kill most life stages of bed bug, with 95% mortality after 3 days at 12C (10F).[17] They show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 3540C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones.[18]

The thermal death point for C. lectularius is 45C (113F); all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46C (115F).[16] Bed bugs apparently cannot survive high concentrations of carbon dioxide for very long; exposure to nearly pure nitrogen atmospheres, however, appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours.[19]

Bed bugs are obligatory hematophagous (bloodsucking) insects. Most species feed on humans only when other prey are unavailable.[20][21][22] They obtain all the additional moisture they need from water vapor in the surrounding air.[23] Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxide, secondarily by warmth, and also by certain chemicals.[24][25][26] Bedbugs prefer exposed skin, preferably the face, neck, and arms of a sleeping person.

Bedbugs have mouth parts that saw through the skin, and inject saliva with anticoagulants and painkillers. Sensitivity of humans varies from extreme allergic reaction to no reaction at all (about 20%). The bite usually produces a swelling with no red spot, but when many bugs feed on a small area, reddish spots may appear after the swelling subsides.[16]

Although under certain cool conditions adult bed bugs can live for over a year without feeding,[27] under typically warm conditions they try to feed at five- to ten-day intervals, and adults can survive for about five months without food.[28] Younger instars cannot survive nearly as long, though even the vulnerable newly hatched first instars can survive for weeks without taking a blood meal.

At the 57th annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in 2009, newer generations of pesticide-resistant bed bugs in Virginia were reported to survive only two months without feeding.[29]

DNA from human blood meals can be recovered from bed bugs for up to 90 days, which mean they can be used for forensic purposes in identifying on whom the bed bugs have fed.[30][31]

A bed bug pierces the skin of its host with a stylet fascicle, rostrum, or “beak”. The rostrum is composed of the maxillae and mandibles, which have been modified into elongated shapes from a basic, ancestral style. The right and left maxillary stylets are connected at their midline and a section at the centerline forms a large food canal and a smaller salivary canal. The entire maxillary and mandibular bundle penetrates the skin.[5]

The tips of the right and left maxillary stylets are not the same; the right is hook-like and curved, and the left is straight. The right and left mandibular stylets extend along the outer sides of their respective maxillary stylets and do not reach anywhere near the tip of the fused maxillary stylets. The stylets are retained in a groove in the labium, and during feeding, they are freed from the groove as the jointed labium is bent or folded out of the way; its tip never enters the wound.[5]

The mandibular stylet tips have small teeth, and through alternately moving these stylets back and forth, the insect cuts a path through tissue for the maxillary bundle to reach an appropriately sized blood vessel. Pressure from the blood vessel itself fills the insect with blood in three to five minutes. The bug then withdraws the stylet bundle from the feeding position and retracts it back into the labial groove, folds the entire unit back under the head, and returns to its hiding place.[5] It takes between five and ten minutes for a bed bug to become completely engorged with blood.[32] In all, the insect may spend less than 20 minutes in physical contact with its host, and does not try to feed again until it has either completed a moult or, if an adult, has thoroughly digested the meal.

All bed bugs mate by traumatic insemination.[4][33] Female bed bugs possess a reproductive tract that functions during oviposition, but the male does not use this tract for sperm insemination.[4] Instead, the male pierces the female’s abdomen with his hypodermic penis and ejaculates into the body cavity. In all bed bug species except Primicimex cavernis, sperm are injected into the mesospermalege,[4] a component of the spermalege,[4] a secondary genital structure that reduces the wounding and immunological costs of traumatic insemination.[34][35][36] Injected sperm travel via the haemolymph (blood) to sperm storage structures called seminal conceptacles, with fertilisation eventually taking place at the ovaries.[35]

Male bed bugs sometimes attempt to mate with other males and pierce their abdomens.[37] This behaviour occurs because sexual attraction in bed bugs is based primarily on size, and males mount any freshly fed partner regardless of sex.[38] The “bed bug alarm pheromone” consists of (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-hexenal. It is released when a bed bug is disturbed, as during an attack by a predator. A 2009 study demonstrated the alarm pheromone is also released by male bed bugs to repel other males that attempt to mate with them.[36][39]

Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus mate with each other given the opportunity, but the eggs then produced are usually sterile. In a 1988 study, one of 479 eggs was fertile and resulted in a hybrid, Cimex hemipterus lectularius.[40][41]

Cimex lectularius males have environmental microbes on their genitals. These microbes damage sperm cells, leaving them unable to fertilize female gametes. Due to these dangerous microbes, males have evolved antimicrobial ejaculate substances that prevent sperm damage. When the microbes contact sperm or the male genitals, the bed bug releases antimicrobial substances. Many species of these microbes live in the bodies of females after mating. The microbes can cause infections in the females. It has been suggested that females receive benefit from the ejaculate. Though the benefit is not direct, females are able to produce more eggs than optimum increasing the amount of the females’ genes in the gene pool.[42]

In organisms, sexual selection extends past differential reproduction to affect sperm composition, sperm competition, and ejaculate size. Males of C. lectularius allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid per mating. Due to these findings, Reinhard et. al proposed that multiple mating is limited by seminal fluid and not sperm. After measuring ejaculate volume, mating rate and estimating sperm density, Reinhardt et al. showed that mating could be limited by seminal fluid. Despite these advances, the cost difference between ejaculate-dose dependence and mating frequency dependence have not been explored.[43]

Males fertilize females only by traumatic insemination into the structure called the ectospermalege (the organ of Berlese, however the organ of Ribaga, as it was first named, was first designated as an organ of stridulation. These two names are not descriptive, so other terminologies are used). On fertilization, the female’s ovaries finish developing, which suggests that sperm plays a role other than fertilizing the egg. Fertilization also allows for egg production through the corpus allatum. Sperm remains viable in a female’s spermathecae (a better term is conceptacle), a sperm-carrying sack, for a long period of time as long as body temperature is optimum. The female lays fertilized eggs until she depletes the sperm found in her conceptacle. After the depletion of sperm, she lays a few sterile eggs. The number of eggs a C. lectularius female produces does not depend on the sperm she harbors, but on the female’s nutritional level.[44]

In C. lectularius, males sometimes mount other males because male sexual interest is directed at any recently fed individual regardless of their sex, but unfed females may also be mounted. Traumatic insemination is the only way for copulation to occur in bed bugs. Females have evolved the spermalege to protect themselves from wounding and infection. Because males lack this organ, traumatic insemination could leave them badly injured. For this reason, males have evolved alarm pheromones to signal their sex to other males. If a male C. lectularius mounts another male, the mounted male releases the pheromone signal and the male on top stops before insemination.

Females are capable of producing alarm pheromones to avoid multiple mating, but they generally do not do so. Two reasons are proposed as to why females do not release alarm pheromones to protect themselves. First, alarm pheromone production is costly. Due to egg production, females may refrain from spending additional energy on alarm pheromones. The second proposed reason is that releasing the alarm pheromone reduces the benefits associated with multiple mating.[45] Benefits of multiple mating include material benefits, better quality nourishment or more nourishment, genetic benefits including increased fitness of offspring, and finally, the cost of resistance may be higher than the benefit of consentwhich appears the case in C. lectularius.[46]

Bed bugs have five immature nymph life stages and a final sexually mature adult stage.[47] They shed their skins through ecdysis at each stage, discarding their outer exoskeleton, which is somewhat clear, empty exoskeletons of the bugs themselves. Bed bugs must molt six times before becoming fertile adults, and must consume at least one blood meal to complete each moult.[48]

Each of the immature stages lasts about a week, depending on temperature and the availability of food, and the complete lifecycle can be completed in as little as two months (rather long compared to other ectoparasites). Fertilized females with enough food lay three to four eggs each day continually until the end of their lifespans (about nine months under warm conditions), possibly generating as many as 500 eggs in this time.[48]Genetic analysis has shown that a single pregnant bed bug, possibly a single survivor of eradication, can be responsible for an entire infestation over a matter of weeks, rapidly producing generations of offspring.[49]

Slide of Cimex lectularius

Bed bug (4mm length; 2.5mm width), shown in a film roll plastic container, on the right is the recently sloughed skin from its nymph stage

A bed bug nymph feeding on a host

Blood-fed C. lectularius (note the differences in color with respect to digestion of blood meal)

Sexual dimorphism occurs in C. lectularius, with the females larger in size than the males on average. The abdomens of the sexes differ in that the males appear to have “pointed” abdomens, which are actually their copulatory organs, while females have more rounded abdomens. Since males are attracted to large body size, any bed bug with a recent blood meal can be seen as a potential mate. However, males will mount unfed, flat females on occasion. The female is able to curl her abdomen forward and underneath toward the head to not mate. Males are generally unable to discriminate between the sexes until after mounting, but before inseminating.[50]

C. lectularius only feeds every five to seven days, which suggests that it does not spend the majority of its life searching for a host. When a bed bug is starved, it leaves its shelter and searches for a host. If it successfully feeds, it returns to its shelter. If it does not feed, it continues to search for a host. After searchingregardless of whether or not it has eatenthe bed bug returns to the shelter to aggregate before the photophase (period of light during a day-night cycle). Reis argues that two reasons explain why C. lectularius would return to its shelter and aggregate after feeding. One is to find a mate and the other is to find shelter to avoid getting smashed after eating.[51]

C. lectularius aggregates under all life stages and mating conditions. Bed bugs may choose to aggregate because of predation, resistance to desiccation, and more opportunities to find a mate. Airborne pheromones are responsible for aggregations. Another source of aggregation could be the recognition of other C. lectularius bugs through mechanoreceptors located on their antennae. Aggregations are formed and disbanded based on the associated cost and benefits. Females are more often found separate from the aggregation than males. Females are more likely to expand the population range and find new sites. Active female dispersal can account for treatment failures. Males, when found in areas with few females, abandon an aggregation to find a new mate. The males excrete an aggregation pheromone into the air that attracts virgin females and arrests other males.[52]

Bed bugs can exist singly, but tend to congregate once established. Though strictly parasitic, they spend only a tiny fraction of their lifecycles physically attached to hosts. Once a bed bug finishes feeding, it relocates to a place close to a known host, commonly in or near beds or couches in clusters of adults, juveniles, and eggswhich entomologists call harborage areas or simply harborages to which the insect returns after future feedings by following chemical trails. These places can vary greatly in format, including luggage, inside of vehicles, within furniture, amongst bedside cluttereven inside electrical sockets and nearby laptop computers. Bed bugs may also nest near animals that have nested within a dwelling, such as bats, birds,[53] or rodents. They are also capable of surviving on domestic cats and dogs, though humans are the preferred host of C. lectularius.[54]

Bed bugs can also be detected by their characteristic smell of rotting raspberries.[55]Bed bug detection dogs are trained to pinpoint infestations, with a possible accuracy rate between 11% and 83%.[56]

Eradication of bed bugs frequently requires a combination of nonpesticide approaches and the occasional use of pesticides.[7][10]

Mechanical approaches, such as vacuuming up the insects and heat-treating or wrapping mattresses, are effective.[7][56] A combination of heat and drying treatments is most effective. An hour at a temperature of 45C (113F) or over, or two hours at less than 17C (1F) kills them;[56] a domestic clothes drier or steam kills bedbugs.[16] Another study found 100% mortality rates for bed bugs exposed to temperatures greater than 50C (122F) for more than 2 minutes.[57] Starving them is difficult as they can survive without eating for 100 to 300 days, depending on temperature.[56] For public health reasons, individuals are encouraged to call a professional pest control service to eradicate bed bugs in a home, rather than attempting to do it themselves, particularly if they live in a multifamily building.[58]

As of 2012[update], no truly effective pesticides were available.[56] Pesticides that have historically been found effective include pyrethroids, dichlorvos, and malathion.[10] Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time, and harm to health from their use is of concern.[7] The carbamate insecticide propoxur is highly toxic to bed bugs, but it has potential toxicity to children exposed to it, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has been reluctant to approve it for indoor use.[59]Boric acid, occasionally applied as a safe indoor insecticide, is not effective against bed bugs because they do not groom.[60][dubious discuss] The fungus Beauveria bassiana is being researched as of 2012[update] for its ability to control bed bugs.[61] As bed bugs continue to adapt pesticide resistance, researchers have examined on the insect’s genome to see how the adaptations develop and to look for potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited in the growth and development phases.[62]

Natural enemies of bed bugs include the masked hunter insect (also known as “masked bed bug hunter”),[63]cockroaches,[64]ants, spiders (particularly Thanatus flavidus), mites, and centipedes (particularly the house centipede Scutigera coleoptrata). However, biological pest control is not considered practical for eliminating bed bugs from human dwellings.[16]

Bed bugs occur around the world.[65] Rates of infestations in developed countries, while decreasing from the 1930s to the 1980s, have increased dramatically since the 1980s.[7][10][65] Previously, they were common in the developing world, but rare in the developed world.[10] The increase in the developed world may have been caused by increased international travel, resistance to insecticides, and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bed bugs.[66][67]

The fall in bed bug populations after the 1930s in the developed world is believed partly due to the use of DDT to kill cockroaches.[68] The invention of the vacuum cleaner and simplification of furniture design may have also played a role.[68] Others believe it might simply be the cyclical nature of the organism.[69]

The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, increased immigration from the developing world to the developed world, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests, resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides.[10][66] Declines in household cockroach populations that have resulted from the use of insecticides effective against this major bed bug predator have aided the bed bugs’ resurgence, as have bans on DDT and other potent pesticides.[70]

The common bed bug (C. lectularius) is the species best adapted to human environments. It is found in temperate climates throughout the world. Other species include Cimex hemipterus, found in tropical regions, which also infests poultry and bats, and Leptocimex boueti, found in the tropics of West Africa and South America, which infests bats and humans. Cimex pilosellus and Cimex pipistrella primarily infest bats, while Haematosiphon inodora, a species of North America, primarily infests poultry.[71]

C. lectularius may have originated in the Middle East in caves inhabited by bats and humans.[21]

Bed bugs were mentioned in ancient Greece as early as 400 BC, and were later mentioned by Aristotle. Pliny’s Natural History, first published circa 77 AD in Rome, claimed bed bugs had medicinal value in treating ailments such as snake bites and ear infections. (Belief in the medicinal use of bed bugs persisted until at least the 18th century, when Guettard recommended their use in the treatment of hysteria.[72])

Bed bugs were first mentioned in Germany in the 11th century, in France in the 13th century, and in England in 1583,[21] though they remained rare in England until 1670. Some in the 18th century believed bed bugs had been brought to London with supplies of wood to rebuild the city after the Great Fire of London (1666). Giovanni Antonio Scopoli noted their presence in Carniola (roughly equivalent to present-day Slovenia) in the 18th century.[73][74]

Traditional methods of repelling and/or killing bed bugs include the use of plants, fungi, and insects (or their extracts), such as black pepper;[75]black cohosh (Actaea racemosa); Pseudarthria hookeri; Laggera alata (Chinese yngmo co | );[16]Eucalyptus saligna oil;[76][77]henna (Lawsonia inermis or camphire);[78] “infused oil of Melolontha vulgaris” (presumably cockchafer); fly agaric (Amanita muscaria); Actaea spp. (e.g. black cohosh); tobacco; “heated oil of Terebinthina” (i.e. true turpentine); wild mint (Mentha arvensis); narrow-leaved pepperwort (Lepidium ruderale); Myrica spp. (e.g. bayberry); Robert geranium (Geranium robertianum); bugbane (Cimicifuga spp.); “herb and seeds of Cannabis”; “opulus” berries (possibly maple or European cranberrybush); masked hunter bugs (Reduvius personatus), “and many others”.[79]

In the mid-19th century, smoke from peat fires was recommended as an indoor domestic fumigant against bed bugs.[80]

Dusts have been used to ward off insects from grain storage for centuries, including “plant ash, lime, dolomite, certain types of soil, and diatomaceous earth or Kieselguhr”.[81] Of these, diatomaceous earth in particular has seen a revival as a nontoxic (when in amorphous form) residual pesticide for bed bug abatement. While diatomaceous earth performed poorly, silica gel may be effective.[82][83]

Basket-work panels were put around beds and shaken out in the morning in the UK and in France in the 19th century. Scattering leaves of plants with microscopic hooked hairs around a bed at night, then sweeping them up in the morning and burning them, was a technique reportedly used in Southern Rhodesia and in the Balkans.[84]

Bean leaves have been used historically to trap bedbugs in houses in Eastern Europe. The trichomes on the bean leaves capture the insects by impaling the feet (tarsi) of the insects. The leaves are then destroyed.[85]

Prior to the mid-20th century, bed bugs were very common. According to a report by the UK Ministry of Health, in 1933, all the houses in many areas had some degree of bed bug infestation.[86] The increase in bed bug populations in the early 20th century has been attributed to the advent of electric heating, which allowed bed bugs to thrive year-round instead of only in warm weather.[87]

Bed bugs were a serious problem at U.S. military bases during World War II.[88] Initially, the problem was solved by fumigation, using Zyklon Discoids that released hydrogen cyanide gas, a rather dangerous procedure.[88] Later, DDT was used to good effect as a safer alternative.[88]

The decline of bed bug populations in the 20th century is often credited to potent pesticides that had not previously been widely available.[89] Other contributing factors that are less frequently mentioned in news reports are increased public awareness and slum clearance programs that combined pesticide use with steam disinfection, relocation of slum dwellers to new housing, and in some cases also follow-up inspections for several months after relocated tenants moved into their new housing.[87]

Bed bug infestations resurged since the 1980s[49] for reasons that are not clear, but contributing factors may be complacency, increased resistance, bans on pesticides, and increased international travel.[89] The U.S. National Pest Management Association reported a 71% increase in bed bug calls between 2000 and 2005.[90] The number of reported incidents in New York City alone rose from 500 in 2004 to 10,000 in 2009.[91] In 2013, Chicago was listed as the number 1 city in the United States with the worst bed bug infestation.[92] As a result, the Chicago City Council passed a bed bug control ordinance to limit their spread. Additionally, bed bugs are reaching places in which they never established before, such as southern South America.[93][94]

One recent theory about bed bug reappearance in the US is that they never truly disappeared, but may have been forced to alternative hosts. Consistent with this is the finding that bed bug DNA shows no evidence of an evolutionary bottleneck. Furthermore, investigators have found high populations of bed bugs at poultry facilities in Arkansas. Poultry workers at these facilities may be spreading bed bugs, unknowingly carrying them to their places of residence and elsewhere after leaving work.[95][96]

The saying, “Good night, sleep tight, don’t let the bed bugs bite”, is common for parents to say to young children before they go to sleep.[97]

In Chhattisgarh, India, bed bugs have been used as a traditional medicine for alopecia, epilepsy, piles, and urinary disorders, but this practice has no scientific basis.[98] Bed bug secretions can inhibit the growth of some bacteria and fungi; antibacterial components from the bed bug could be used against human pathogens, and be a source of pharmacologically active molecules as a resource for the discovery of new drugs.[99]

The word bug and its earlier spelling bugge originally meant “bed bug”. Many other creatures are now called “bugs”, such as the “ladybug” (“ladybird” outside North America) and the “potato bug”; the word is used informally for any insect, or even microscopic germs or diseases caused by these germs, but the earliest recorded use of the actual word “bug” referred to a bed bug.[100]

The term “bed bug” may also be spelled “bedbug” or “bed-bug”, though published sources consistently use the unhyphenated two-word name “bed bug”.[101] The pests have been known by a variety of other informal names, including chilly billies, chinche bug, crimson rambler, heavy dragoon, mahogany flat, redcoat, and wall louse.[60]

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Exterminate Bed Bugs in Worcester, MA and Central Mass …

If you have Bed Bug concerns, this is what you can expect when you call us!

If you call within our hours of operation, we answer the phone LIVE, no automated greeting. One of our professional customer service representatives will take the time to listen to your concerns and ask questions to determine that it is a bed bug issue that you are dealing with.

After determining that you do, in fact, have a bed bug issue, we will describe to you everything that is involved with the actual treatment itself, which will include:

We will provide you with all of the necessary preparation sheets that describe (in detail) everything that needs to be done prior to each service visit and what is to be expected after each service visit.

If you are a landlord and there are multiple units involved we will ensure that you are provided with the necessary prep sheets for all tenants involved.

Please do NOT feel embarrassed if you have bed bugs. Bed bugs have nothing to do with sanitation, nor are they associated with having a dirty home. You or anyone in your family can bring a pregnant female bed bug home from just about anywhere at any time. Bed bugs are known to not only frequent hotels, but are also very prevalent in college dorm rooms, movie theaters, cabs, busses, gyms, school locker areas, nursing homes, etc. You can even have them brought into your home by friends or family members who have an issue themselves but are just too embarrassed to say anything or have anything done about it. Take back control of your home and allow us to make your home bed bug free again!

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Expert Bed Bug Control Services in PA – Hersh Exterminating

Bed bugsare becoming more and more of a problem. Increasing mobility, including more domestic and international travel, is one reason bed-bug infestations are becoming more common, but bed bugs can also be spread by bringing used furniture or mattresses home or simply by living next door to a house or apartment teeming with the bugs.

People who realize that their homes have bed bugs are often tempted to keep their infestations quiet. The stigma of having bed bugs means that people often try to solve the problem themselves. This is a mistake. First, having bed bugs is no reflection on your own personal cleanliness. Bed bugs in Pennsylvania and Ohio can be found in the nicest of homes. Second, home remedies such as traps or bug bombs simply do not work on bed bugs. Professional pest control is the only effective way of how to get rid of bed bugs.

The first thing you should do when you realize your home had bed bugs is call Hersh Exterminating. We will visit your home, determine the extent of your bed-bug infestation, and advise you on the steps necessary to exterminate the pests. The difficulty of bed bug control means that you should seek out a pest-control professional with bed-bug experience and proper state and local licensing.

A proper bed-bug treatment requires at least two separate applications of pest-control chemicals. The first application is should kill the existing bed bugs; the pest-management professional should return at least two weeks later to apply chemicals to kill the larvae that have hatched since the first application. A thorough pest-control company will treat the entire building and its contents, not just the bedroom or other room most affected by bed bugs, since they can hide in books, furniture, wallpaper, and other places you would never expect to find them. If your Pennsylvania or Ohio bed bug infestation is particularly severe, a third or even a fourth visit from the pest-management professionals may be in order.

Our bed bug extermination company in Pittsburgh, Butler, Beaver Falls, New Castle, Hermitage, PA or Youngstown, Columbiana, Salem, Warren, Newton Falls, Ohio help customers with removal and treatment.

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BedBugs.NET — The Web’s #1 Source for Bed Bug treatments …

Find out if your area has been bed bug infestations through our Bed Bug Registry. This Registry is essential for anyone who is traveling to a holiday destination. We currently have over 21,000 bed bug reports from AROUND the world, making our registry the largest bug registry in the world! Many of our readers upload pictures of the infestation that you can look at. If you have any questions about an infestation, you can post them in the comments section so the original bed bug report author can respond!

Travel Tip: If you are travelling, make sure you search hotels you plan to stay at for any bed bug infestation reports on our registry to avoid a potential bed bug encounter! If a hotel has had a history of bed bug infestations, you can also read reports on HOW the hotel treats the guests after being informed of bed bugs by the guest!

In the Bed Bugs GUIDE section you will find everything you need to know about bed bugs. From the basic biology of bed bugs, to various (working) bed bug treatments, our GUIDE section has everything you need to know about preventing, identifying, and eliminating bed bugs in your home. Also check out our BLOG for more information and bed bug help.

Check out our Bed Bug Store for the most effective and affordable bed bug products on the market — for regular people and for pest control professionals alike. We’ve carefully choosen and made available the must have, most effective bed bug products to help you eliminate and prevent bed bug infestations — both at home and while you travel. There’s a lot of products on the market that do NOTHING.

We only list and recommend products that are proven to be effective. Even better, we’ve carefully written up a number of best bed bug product guides to help you choose what products to use and how to use them.

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Saskatchewan, Canada Bed Bug Registry Map Bed Bug …

Max. Incidents: 1000 1397 Jahnstrasse 42, Jahnstrasse 42, Wurmsham, Ontario, Canada, 84189 [2015-01-23] Via Antonio Cecchi 68, Via Antonio Cecchi 68, Paluello, Ontario, Canada, 30039 [2015-01-17] 3472 Nutter Street, 3472 Nutter Street, Freeman, Ontario, Canada, 64746 [2015-01-17] 50 Rue La Boetie, 50 Rue La Boetie, Paris, Ontario, Canada, 75014 [2015-01-04] 491 Sycamore Street, 491 Sycamore Street, Santa Clara, Ontario, Canada, 95054 [2014-12-25] Rhinstrasse 80, Rhinstrasse 80, Munchen, Ontario, Canada, 80741 [2014-12-17] 85 Avenue Jean Portalis, 85 Avenue Jean Portalis, Tremblay-En-France, Ontario, Canada, 93290 [2014-12-12] 640 Roselawn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5N1K9 [2014-08-23] 26 Riverdale Ave, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M4K 1C3 [2014-08-22] 57 Lambton Ave, City, Toronto, Ontario, Canada [2014-07-22] Home Mail Search News Sports Finance Weather Games Answers Screen Flickr Mobile More Celebrity Movies Music TV Groups Health Style Beauty Food Parenting Makers Tech Shopping Travel Autos Homes Upgrade to the new Firefox Sign In Mail Help Account Info Help Suggestions Source Link(s) Are Here Top 10 Travel Health Tips to Stay Healthy this Spring Break Tags: account-info, answers, answers-screen, celebrity, firefox, flickr-mobile, generated, music, search, shopping, sports, sports-finance, weather-games Bed bug facts Courtesy of the CDC Tuesday, February 3, 2015 4:05 AM EST What are bed bugs? Bed bugs are small, flat, parasitic insects that feed solely on the blood of people and animals while they sleep Source Link(s) Are Here Bed bug facts Courtesy of the CDC Saskatchewan From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Continue reading

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Toronto Bed Bug Registry Maps Toronto, Ontario, Canada …

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Bed Bugs Treatment New Jersey | Eastern Bed Bug Control


Bed Bugs






Camel Crickets

Carpenter Ants

Stink Bugs


Bees & Wasps



Carpenter Bees




Call Eastern and get rid of Bed Bugs once and for all!

You may have read or heard how difficult it can be to get rid of Bedbugs; and with an ill-considered approach it can be.

However at Eastern, we use a very scientific approach to the most recent outbreak of bed bugs. Our Bed Bug Division has a very systematic approach to helping our clients rid their households of bed bug infestations.

Some pest control companies may offer only one form of treatment. Eastern Pest offers many treatment options because each situation is different. We partner with you to find the best treatment for your problem.

This enables our bed bug program to have a very high success rate and eliminate even the worst infestation. Working closely with our clients to allow them to be a part of the solution provides a faster, quicker way to eradicate bed bugs.

Bed bug elimination is a partnership together we can get rid of bed bugs and prevent them from coming back.

When you call Eastern for bed bug control and elimination, you can expect a bed bug specialist to do a free inspection of the home or bring in a bed bug detection dog to confirm there is an infestation. Once the extent of the infestation is identified, the specialist will go over the various treatment options and recommend the best option for you based on how severe the problem really is. Whether bed bugs are contained to specific room or throughout the home or business, the specialist will recommend the bed bug treatment that suits your needs. Were so confident that your bed bug problem will be solved, we put a lengthy guarantee on every one of our bed bug treatment methods. Youll also learn bed bug prevention tips and techniques which will help you avoid reinfesting your home.

Here are some of the bed bug treatments and processes Eastern Pest uses to get rid of bed bugs:

Bed Bug Dogs – A pest management professional with a properly-trained bed bug dog can achieve a detection rate of up to 90% compared to 40% without a trained dog. A properly-trained dog can detect bed bugs faster and more accurately than any other method – saving time and money for large facilities and homes – leading to lower remediation costs. Click here to learn more about bed bug dogs.

Conventional Treatment This is the most popular treatment because of its effectiveness and affordability. It involves 2 insecticide treatments within a week time period to treat all cracks/crevices affiliated with the bed frame, electrical outlets, headboards, door frames and baseboards of infested and targeted areas. All products uses are registered and applied in accordance to EPA label specifications. This treatment comes with a 30 day service guarantee after the second treatment!

Hepa Vacuum This is a great way to physically remove any live eggs, nymphs or adult bed bugs that may contain any allergy triggering fragments and cast skins. The vacuum is used to treat all areas of the room/home, similar to the conventional treatment.

Heat Treatment Heat is a proven bed bug killer and is known for its effectiveness, ease of preparation, and same day treatment. Learn more by going to the bed bug heat treatment page,or watch the video below.

Freeze Treatment Cryonite freezing can be used as an alternative to chemicals and is applied similarly to the conventional treatment. Applying carbon dioxide snow to the cracks and crevices throughout the structure, it essentially freezes the bed bugs in an environmentally friendly and hygienic way. Cryonite is very popular for commercial buildings like hotels, food plants, hospitals, museums, sacred buildings, trains, and offices. Learn more about commercial bed bug control.

With the proper treatment and application, you do not have to throw out your expensive mattresses, box springs and pillows if you have bed bugs.

Call Eastern today and learn which option is best for you. We’ll provide you with the information you need to make the right decision for you and your family. Call Now!

Don’t panic.

Do not apply pesticides You are legally liable if you misapply a pesticide, or apply it without a license to the property of another (including common spaces in apartment buildings). Generally, landlords, owners and building managers cannot legally apply pesticides. They should, instead, hire a licensed pest control operator to confirm the infestation and to develop an integrated pest management plan.

Do not dispose of furniture that is useful- Infested furniture can be cleaned and treated. Placing infested furniture (particularly mattresses) into common areas or on the street may simply help spread bed bugs to the homes of other people. Infested furniture intended for disposal should be defaced to make it less attractive to other people. Officials in some municipalities affix labels to potentially infested furniture to warn of bed bugs. To reduce opportunities of infested furniture re-entering their building, building managers should ensure that any disposed furniture is locked within a dumpster or immediately carted away to a landfill or waste facility.

We understand that having bed bugs is a stressful time,so we try to do everything we can to make you comfortable and at easewhen doing business with us. Here is a letter sent to us by one of our customers who had bed bugs. We hope this will give you a glimpse into what to expect if you decide to call us to eliminate bed bugs in your home or business.

It was very nice meeting and a pleasure doing business with you. I want to thank you and your incredible staff for tackling the herculean job of hopefully ridding my condo of bed bugs (especially my living room sofa bed where they were prevalent; having bred there unbeknownst to me for at least seven months!). Since the process was completed, I keep looking down on my clothes while reclining on the sofa at night to see if a bug is crawling across my body (as happened in the recent past) but am very happy to report that, as of this writing, I haven’t seen any sign of them. Thank heavens!

Each member of your company that I had the pleasure of dealing with including you and your son showed great restraint and were courteous, patient, and very understanding. I was a nervous wreck over the whole ordeal. Here are a few observations of the professionalism of your staff:

I only wish I knew where the bed bugs came from so I could possibly prevent recurrence. My rating for the entire job and your efficient and knowledgeable staff is FIVE STARS! I would highly recommend your firm to anyone looking to rid their home of unwanted vermin. I consider myself very fortunate to have picked your name from the variety of pest control companies on the Internet based on your in-depth information. You can rest assured that if I have any future problems with any variety of pest, I will definitely call on you to handle the job of eradicating them. Keep up the good work and best wishes for your continued success.

Thank You again for being so kind and helpful.


Nancy Sweet

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Erie PA Bed bug Hotel and Apartment Reports

Bed Bug Hotel and Apartment Reports. We have listed all of the bed bug reports and hotels we have found in Erie, Pennsylvania below.

Recommended tips after hotel check-in: 1. Pick up the mattresses in the rooms and look under it. Check around the edges of the box springs. 2. Check under the box spring. 3. Lift up each headboard an lie it on the bed. Carefully inspect the hole where the headboard was lifted out of. Also, inspect all niches and corners of the headboard. 4. If you decide to stay in the hotel, do not put any clothes in dressers. Keep them in your luggage and your dirty clothes in plastic bags.

I noticed something out of the corner of my eyes and saw two little blackish bugs. I killed them and blood was smeared over the sheets. Upon getting out of bed, I found two other blood spots on my sid…

On 8/30/14 I checked into room 213. I took my daughter and 4 of her friends for an over night trip to Splash Lagoon. When returned home on 8/31/14, and 3 of the girls parents called me about some bite…

I found a LIVE adult bed bug in the sheets when I woke up. I caught it and put it in a cup. Showed it to management. They were sympathetic but not surprised. …

I found one on the bed called the desk had them come get it and surprise rite before i left i go in the bathroom and ones crawling on the toilet seat it was disgusting ..i recieved a refund but it sti…

Bitten several times.told the front desk and priceline who I booked this hotel with and both said they could not do anything for me…

July 5 2014 Bed bug found beware Be warned …

Found bugs and pubic hair on the sheets and mattress….

Woke up with 15-20 bug bites mainly in groups of 2 or 3s. …

Had a huge issue when workers came to do a do ceiling. They left holes in wall and bugs were getting in. Reported to landlord and he sent maintenance to spray. They said bugs were an issue for yrs. Th…

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Erie PA Bed bug Hotel and Apartment Reports

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Bed Bugs Center – Erie, PA – MedicineNet

Type of Physician: Dermatologist

What is a Dermatologist? A certification by the Board of Dermatology; practitioners treat pediatric and adult patients with disorders of the skin, mouth, hair and nails as well as a number of sexually transmitted diseases. They also have expertise in the care of normal skin, the prevention of skin diseases and cancers, and in the management of cosmetic disorders of the skin such as hair loss and scars.

Specialty: Dermatology

Common Name: Skin Doctor

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