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NYC Bed Bugs: New York Hotels With Reported Bed Bug …

Before a person can prevent an infestation, it is important to know what they are, how they live and what they look like. Once you know what they look like, hopefully, before you bring them home, you can avoid staying in hotels that have them.

Simply, they are small parasites that live in mattresses and other types of soft furniture. They are nocturnal and are hard to spot during the day. They are oval-shaped, and once they have fed on blood are reddish brown in color. If you ever see an insect in your home or hotel room that is flattish, oval-shaped and reddish brown, you should catch it and try to identify it.

These parasites feed on blood, primarily human blood. This is a major creep factor is associated with them beyond simply having a home pest. They come out at night, crawl on your sleeping body and make a meal of you. Some people may find the vampire myth sexy but nobody, except maybe an entomologist, can say the same about these insects.

For most people the idea of having them is completely repulsive. They are sneaky, gross and hated around the world. They attack people when they are at their most vulnerable and leave few signs behind.

New York City is #1 in many things, but it was not prepared to become the American city with the heaviest infestation. There is a simple reason for this resurgence. International travel gives these bugs new homes quickly. New York City is certainly a major travel hub. Vacationers head to NYC but the main culprit of the outbreak is people who travel for business.

Vacationers simply go from their home to a hotel and back. They are much less likely to drop these parasites in enough hotels to cause a major problem; although vacationers are often a victim, and bring them home unknowingly. People in business spend weeks or months hotel hopping. As our society has become global these bugs have staged a comeback.

The U.S. almost got rid of them early in the last century. Then international travel became more common and people were staying in hotels in countries that were still dealing with them. People would go to different countries and bring home a little something extra in their luggage and clothing. The U.S. now has a new booming industry eradication of these pests.

New York City may have them but how does one avoid staying in a hotel that has an active infestation. The insidious thing about these pests is that they do not always live in the flea-bag motels. It would be easy to stay in a slightly more expensive hotel but that is no guarantee of an infestation-free accommodation. Actually, the more expensive hotels are just as likely to have infestations.

With the Internet age in full force there is a website that is devoted to the places with reported infestations. The Bed Bug Registry is a website where people can report their sightings and experiences. People can use this free resource to avoid bringing home an unwanted souvenir.

These insects are sneaky little devils. They only come out in the dark unless the infestation is extreme. When you turn on the lights of your hotel room, they will quickly scurry away. Although it is hard to spot them, they do leave visible signs behind.

The most prevalent signs are blood smears on the sheets and waste along the bedrails. They hide behind the headboard, along the railings of the bed and between the mattress and bedsprings. If you cannot spot the little beasties, you should become accustomed to the other signs. These pests shed skin and leave fecal matter behind. This looks like a pile of pepper or coarse ash in areas where they nest.

People may not want to spend their evenings hunting for these bugs but that is better than bringing them home. Just strip the bed, check under the box springs and glance behind the headboard. If you see any signs, ask for a new room or find a new hotel.

Normally the vehicles that you ride in are not a problem when it comes to these insects. Places where people sleep or gather cause problems. There are things that you can do to keep the bugs from coming home with you. The use of a hard suitcase is one of the best things that one can do to keep them from hitching a ride home with you. Putting your clothing into a re-sealable plastic bag before putting them into the suitcase keeps them out of your clothing.

Remember that the hotels are there to serve you. You can ask them about their policy. How often do they inspect? Do they have an exterminator come in on a regular basis? Is the housekeeping staff knowledgeable? Asking these questions will not offend the staff at a quality hotel.

Once you are in the room, you want to keep your suitcase on top of a table or dresser. You should keep your clothes packed for a brief stay. You do not have to put your clothes in the bureau or closet.

When you come home unpack in a room that plenty of hard light-colored surfaces. Shake out and wash your clothing before putting them away. Inspect your luggage. Pay close attention to the handle and wheel area of the suitcase.

Even if you accidentally stay overnight in a hotel that has an active infestation there are ways to prevent bringing them home. Wash everything that is washable prior to re-entering your home. This includes clothing, linens and bags that contain clothes. If you cannot wash it, wipe it down. If you cannot wipe it down, put it in a bag for a year. That may sound extreme but these insects can survive for an entire year without feeding again.

Hotels are not the only place that one can pick up these bugs. Guests to your home can bring them in; children can get them at sleepovers or at camp and you can even get them by picking up a castoff piece of furniture that someone left at the side of the street. The owner of that free couch or mattress may have thrown it away because of bugs. Clean every previously owned item that comes into your home.

Even the most cautious people may still end up with a hitchhiker in their suitcase. Anyone can get them but you need to get rid of them as quickly as possible. The easiest way to rid your home of these pests is to contact a pest control company and let them deal with it. You can try DIY extermination but they are very hard to kill. Only a few chemicals will work on them. If you use the right pest killer but miss a few bugs, you will be right back where you started.

Talk to your neighbors. One of the best ways to find the best service is to find out whom your neighbor uses. Sure, it may be a little embarrassing but you do not have to be too specific about why you need a pest company.

Check the ads of the company. If they do not specifically mention these bugs, they may not be experienced their eradication. Ask questions of your pest control company. Make full use of your free consultation and inspection prior to making a decision. Do not listen to grandiose claims. It is difficult to get rid of these bugs. A reputable company will not claim that they can get rid of your problem with one visit.

When the pest company comes to treat your home, they will give you some homework. All homeowners need to do their part by following the instructions that the pest control company suggests. Remember, they are the professionals and you are paying for that knowledge. Follow their advice.

Although they bite, they do not transmit any diseases. However, some people are allergic to the bites. This can cause red and itchy circles to appear on the body. A little cortisone cream will control the itching but the only way to avoid bites is to rid your home of the infestation. Severe scratching of the bites may potentially lead to an infection but this is unrelated to the bugs themselves. If you itch until you break the skin, wash the sore area with soap and water to avoid infection.

The bites normally occur in clusters. There will be a line or collection of little circles on a part of the body. If you notice an unexplainable rash on your body that presents itself as itchy circles, check for an infestation. The inner arms, face and neck are prime feeding spots. These areas are often left uncovered during sleep and are easy places for the bugs to feed.

With the high number of infestations occurring in New York City the city has had to put a few recommendations into place to help combat the problem. Disposing of infected material is a major problem. When people put household items at the curb for the New York City sanitation department to pick up, people who may need the items salvage them for their own use. This spreads the infestation from home to home.

When disposing of a household item that has an active bug population New York City recommends the owner put a sign on the item that announces that it contains bed bugs. This gives the potential new owner a heads up as to what they may be bringing home with their new treasure. If the person disposing of the item can place it into a trash bag, they should do so. This keeps the bugs from leaving and keeps people from knowing what you are throwing away.

People should cut or damage larger items prior to placing them at the curb. A large slice in a mattress, box springs or couch will make it less attractive to scavengers. Do not bring new items into the home until the infestation has been eradicated. Failure to do so just gives them new places to hide and breed. An infested item is not something that one should donate. Giving to charity is great but giving something that will simply cause additional problems to the person you are trying to help is not very nice.

Apartment owners in New York City have the additional problem of keeping them from moving from apartment to apartment. Ask all tenants to report an infestation to the building management immediately. The owner or manager of the building will then be able to call an exterminator in to handle the problem. One should inspect all vacant apartments prior to finding a new tenant. It is easier to treat an empty apartment instead of one that is occupied.

Places where people come to stay for short durations are typically hit hard. The homeless, elderly and medically vulnerable do not need the additional stress of suddenly discovering that their sanctuary is also a haven for these parasites. This is a sensitive issue but one that does need to be addressed.

It is much easier to prevent an infestation than it is to treat one. All staff in any group living situation should be trained to interview new guests. The home should develop a regular set of questions that pinpoint possible carriers while allowing the person answering the questions to maintain their dignity and self-respect. Staff should ask the questions in a respectful and compassionate manner. When one feels as though someone is interrogating them, they may not give truthful answers.

Keeping bugs out can mean getting rid of plush and upholstered furniture. Bed frames should be metal, plastic and metal furnishing and no headboards are the best defense against them finding a hiding place. Linens and anything made of wood should be white. It is easier to spot them on a light colored surface. Box springs should be in a plastic sleeve. Do not use anything made of wicker. The open weave of wicker gives them too many places to hide.

Make eradication part of the culture of the home. Talk openly about them and encourage all residents to report any that they see. Getting rid of the taboo and shame associated will go far toward an open discourse within the home.

Have an exterminator on contract. If you have, or have had a problem, keep your exterminators coming by. They can check for pests and correct any problems early.

Reports of bugs being spotted in New York City public schools have parents concerned. The schools are required by law to report any instances. The infestations are not severe but do show just how prevalent they are. The schools claim that there are just a few bugs here and there but people should still be on the lookout.

Nobody expects to get these bugs from their movers. The surprising fact that movers are spreading them shocks people moving to a new home. The bugs hitch a ride in the moving truck and just wait for a comfy sofa to come in. This is the type of housewarming gift nobody wants or needs. It is important to ensure that you use a quality moving company. Many small unreliable companies out there are more than willing to take your money without offering a great service. Check the references of any moving company that you may be thinking of hiring.

According to ABC News, tourism is being adversely affected by these bugs. The Empire State Building and Bloomingdales, both top tourist attractions, have had recorded these bugs being spotted. When people read about this, they sometimes choose to take their vacation dollars elsewhere. People simply do not want to vacation is an area that has such creepy crawlies creeping around. A city that gets a reputation for being unclean or buggy quickly drops on the list of potential places to visit.

They do not bite if the lights are on. This is a myth. While they are most active at night, they will bite if the lights are on and there is a tasty body part handy.

Using pesticides will eradicate an infestation. This is a myth. The chemicals will not get into all the areas where they reside. You need to do a careful visual inspection and properly clean all infested rooms and items.

If an item is infested, the only option is to throw it away. This is a myth. If you can clean it, you can get rid of the bugs. If you cannot clean it, bag and store it for one year to control a new outbreak.

They are not known to spread disease. This is a fact. This was previously mentioned as a fact but bears repeating. While they are annoying and gross most experts believe that they do not carry illness.

Their bites give you itchy welts. This is both true and a myth. People that are allergic to bug bites will have a strong reaction, while those that are not allergic often times will have no reaction to the bite.

You cannot see one. This is a myth. This bug is small but is not microscopic. They are difficult to see only because of their color and that they are nocturnal creatures.

One visit from an exterminator is all you need for eradication of an infestation. This is a myth. Eradication and control requires a minimum of two visits. The exterminator should return to ensure that all bugs and their eggs are dead.

You can get a quote from a qualified exterminator over the phone. This is a myth. The price of a visit will be determined by the extent of the infestation and the size of your property. A good pest control company should offer a free consultation and then give a price estimate.

Only dirty people get them. This is a myth. Anyone can get them. The test of the sanitation of a home is how long they remain.

If you find them in your home, you are in good company. When you discover them and the owner of the property does nothing about it, call the NYC 311 line and report them. Everyone needs to do as much as they can to help combat the epidemic in New York City. It is everyones responsibility to help. Remember to be on the lookout for these pests, check your home and always use common sense in your travels.

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Bed bugs and salt [a: salt does not work] Got Bed Bugs …

I have a trailer but spend a great deal of time in my bf’s duplex apt that he doesn’t rent and that is where I got my first ever bed bug bite. It took me time and the Internet to figure out what I was dealing with, no pest control company, because I couldn’t afford that and still can’t.

I went to a local lumber/everything store and bought bed bug foggers brought them back to the apt and proceeded to spray every day, then ran into a friend and she said to try salt. Just plain old table salt, to spread it over everything, all floors, some furniture and the mattress and box springs. The bed was old and a left over from somewhere and I will never do that again.

I went out and bought lots of salt. Just the stuff you get in the store, nothing fancy, you want as cheap as you can get and I proceeded to spread it all over the whole apt and then leave it in place for 7 days. All of which I did in the apt and it worked great, is still working today as I sit here typing this.

As for the bed I have tossed it out and will get an air mattress (no animals) I can not afford the encasement’s.

But I am not done with the bed bugs because they hitched a ride and are now in my trailer so I am going through the whole thing again, just in a different location. Over their I also strip off anything I have worn as I walk in the door and it goes into the washer then either line dried or dried in the dryer.

So between the washer and dryer and the foggers and salt I am doing great. I have 3 cats in the trailer which of course got the bed bugs on them and I was hesitant about using the salt but went ahead. They seem to be doing ok, I have plenty of fresh water out for them and I feed them tuna in oil to replenish the oils back into their bodies. I will keep that up until their fur looks good again.

If you try the salt remember it has to be left in place for 7 days and then vacuum them up or leave the salt down longer.

I also am cleaning and am careful with the foggers and food and dishes. I have also washed and dried and re washed and dried all bedding/blankets/towels and clothes. I run the dryer until no suspected anything shows up in the lint tray.

I will let you know how it goes from time to time. Today is June 22, 2011


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Bat Bugs vs Bed Bugs: What are you dealing with?

The bed bug family has been around for a very, very long time. Before they were hitching rides in travelers luggage, the ancestors of bed bugs were cave-dwellers, feeding on sleeping bats and cavemen. When primitive humans left their caves to hunt and gather in the plains, some of these bed bug grandparents moved out with them, while the others stayed behind to continue biting bats. Over time, this separation caused the bugs to evolve into separate species, commonly known today as bed bugs and bat bugs.

Instead of wandering into the sunlight on the backs ofHomo Erectus, bat bugs (as their name implies) opted to stay in their caves, thriving by feeding on sleeping bats. In todays world, bat bugs can be found just about anywhere a nest of bats are (which is to say, pretty much anywhere in the known world). They dont nest on the bats themselves, but they are known to ride on them from place to place.

Unfortunately, if the bats leave the area for any amount of time, a hungry bat bug will settle for a human meal thats close by. Their bites and behavior are identical to those of a bed bug, making them just as annoying when they start feeding.

Bat bugs and bed bugs are extremely similar. At first, second, and nineteenth glance, they look exactly the same. They both crawl, feed, and reproduce in the same ways. So how are they different?

To get the obvious out of the way, they have different food preferences. A bed bug prefers a human host, while bat bugs prefer bats. Surprise of the century, Im sure. While bat bugs will settle for human blood in a pinch, its believed that they are unable to reproduce without a bat host.

Photo credit: N. T. Gallagher

The main visual difference is extremely hard to see without a microscope: bat bugs have longer hair on the upper covering of their thorax. Most of us wouldnt even know that either bug have hairs at all without straining our eyes with a magnifier.

If you suspect that the little brown critters biting you in your sleep are bat bugs, there are some specific things you need to do to get rid of them. First off, you need to cut off their food source: you. Start by elevating your bed with some bed bug traps. Just like bed bugs, bat bugs cannot jump or fly, and must crawl up the legs of your bed to reach you. A talcum-lined pitfall, like the ones in ClimbUps Insect Interceptors, will keep them from getting to you.

Next, its time to get rid of the bats that brought the bugs to you in the first place. You might be thinking, Ive never seen a bat in my home. That may be true, but that doesnt necessarily mean that you dont have a bat problem at all. Bats like to sleep in attics, barns, basements, cellars, and inside walls anywhere that they can fly in and out of, and provides shelter for their nest.

It is illegal in most states and many countries to kill bats, so please dont try to solve your bat problem with poisons or chemicals. Bats are generally not harmful to humans, and are extremely handy as they eat a lot of mosquitos and other flying insects. Many Americans are so appreciative of their neighborhood bats bug control efforts that they build bat houses for them to nest in.

If you have bats in your property, the best course of action is to seal off any access points from your living spaces to where the bats are roosting. Then, once theyve left your home to feed or hibernate, you should perform an exclusion. An exclusion is like weatherproofing by caulking small openings and screening vents, you can ensure that the bats that left your home cant get back in.

After youve evicted your winged tenants, the remaining bat bugs will grow hungry and desperate, and will begin searching for a blood meal. Apply some residual sprays and powders to any cracks and crevices leading into your living spaces, like in the walls or floorboards, to kill any bat bugs that try to reach you from their old feeding ground. Bat bugs and bed bugs can live for up to a year without a meal however, they will most likely leave your home in search of new hosts by then.

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Bat Bugs vs Bed Bugs: What are you dealing with?

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Bed Bugs Limited – Bat Bugs

How to confirm a sample is bat bug?

There are several options for confirming samples as being bat bugs rather than bed bugs, they are:

In the case of scanned images we would recommend that you upload them to the Bedbugger Forum for a specialist to give an opinion. Other options include a university extension entomology department or Bed Bugs Limited postal ID service.

Why its important to confirm samples if bat bugs are suspected

The key reasons why it is important not to make the assumption that just because it looks like a bed bug, it must be a bedbug, are:

Correct confirmation from the start can reduce the time it takes to resolve the problem down to a single visit whereas stories of people being repeatedly treated for bed bugs that are later confirmed as bat bugs are unfortunately very common.

What signs can help indicate bat bugs rather than bed bugs?

There are some secondary indications that the issue may be bat bugs rather than bedbugs, these include:

Collecting and confirming based on a live adult sample will always be the most accurate way to proceed. This is best done in a smooth sided clean glass or, if no other option is available, through the use of a clear adhesive tape.

How does treatment differ between bat bugs and bed bugs?

When bat bugs are encountered (which is rare in the UK and more common in the US) the key differences: are

As such the skills required are better suited to wildlife management pest controllers than urban pest controllers.

Recommended service companies

The following companies have approached us and provided documentation to support their inclusion on this list. Although we have reviewed their documentation and information, we have not been able to review their specific jobs and work quality although one is often an indication of the other.



If you would like to be included on this list please contact the document author via email

Additional resources

The following resources have been linked specifically as primary information sources of note: – identification key to confirm bat bugs or bed bugs.

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Bed Bugs Limited – Bat Bugs

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Bed Bugs Treatment and Extermination Testimonials – Page 1

Many of the discussions below are from visitors around the world who have successfully treated their bed bug infestation. Most of the treatment made use of inexpensive products that can be found at local stores. There are also many treatments that didnt work and many more questions and answers on dealing with bed bugs.

This page contains discussions relating to our bed bug treatment page you should start there for quick tips that work before reading these discussions.

In reviewing these discussions, we found one behavior that was the main cause of treatments failing, and that was patience and diligence. No matter what method you use to treat, You MUST stick with that treatment there is no quick path to getting rid of these bugs!


The way I get rid of bed bugs is to use any spray that has alcohol content and find it kills them instantly. Start by spraying the bugs slowly since the pressure may move them and then try to cover them with the liquid.


will a home fogger kill them


Hi Jeni,

They say insecticides with d-Phenothrin as an active ingredient are most effective on bedbugs, but make sure the product is made for household use or you could end up damaging the items you spray it on!

No matter what the product says, always use care when around children and the elderly, especially people who are immunocompromised or sensitive to products such as these.

When heavy infestation, you probably wont get rid of all the bed bugs at first and will have to hit them again in 10-14 days. Also, be aware that pest control companies are the best bet at dealing with heavy infestation of bed bugs. Failed attempts at do-it-yourself pest control means that bed bugs have that much more time to multiply.

Note: The general consensus are that insecticide sprays are not the effective. Unless it specifically states that its safe to use on your mattress, dont use it. If the product does not guarantee it safe and danger free for humans, then Id stay away from it!

Best regards,


Bob Henry::

I recently moved into a subsidized housing unit and made the mistake of leaving my bed flat on the floor, without the legs; there is no infestation, but they are lurking. One easy method of preventing bed bugs from climbing onto your bed is to put a plastic Tupperware container under each leg of the bed; as of yet no bug has climbed the smooth plastic and over the lip of the container. If you have further doubts as to whether they can climb over the containers, fill them with water.


I just bought a new mattress and a bed set. Bed Bugs appear a lot and I tried to use a spray to kill them. I was panicked and did not know what to do as this is the first time in dealing with pest control. It started from the new set and then to master bedroom and other rooms.

Singapore only sells the dust mite protectors for mattresses with rubber bands and not with a zipper. Do you sell it? Please let me what can I do to prevent the bed bugs.

Thanks and much appreciated.

Meagan Boykin::

I am pregnant and just found bed bugs in my bed. I live in an apartment and I need to know what I can do to get rid of them? Are the owners responsible to getting rid of these?


The only way to keep bed bugs from infesting your home is to avoid buying second hand furniture, books, clothing, etc be informed of your friends and family who are infected so that you may protect yourselves and your home.

Do not over crowd your home with items, clutter is their hide out. Room to room carpeting is a no, no. Bed bugs can breed in the fabrics of your carpets, especially where there is an opening where they can hide underneath. When cleaning your home, dont do it half way.

Make sure you use citrus or citronella cleansing solutions mixed with rubbing alcohol, but make sure you do not mix chemicals which might harm you in process. Keep it natural as possible. And yes, use Diatomaceous Earth in all corners, cracks and openings in your home. Make sure you use it on your carpets, under your bed, around your bed, anywhere there is a hiding place. Even in your closets and drawers.

Check for blood spots and wash your fabrics as suggested according to the label of your fabric. And keep checking for signs of them anywhere you look, and spray some of that powder on them and their eggs.

Keep the temperature of your home on the cooler side, for these bugs thrive in warm temperatures. In winter time, leave your windows open and your air conditioning or heating off to freeze the bugs to death, if you can afford to.

All the best


I was able to vacate my house with the heat off during a cold night and freeze my infestation out. I saved hundreds on an exterminator with this technique!


Hello Matt,

To kill the bed bugs in your home by turning the heat off, you would have to get the house down to about 5F for a day and if the infestation is heavy, youre going to need a few days at -5F. Just turning off the heat and an outside temperature of 0F doesnt mean the inside of the house will be 0. Insulation, length of time, size and more are all factors you need to consider.

Im guessing you live in a very cold area?

Best regards,



I have just returned from Mexico. I have 3 bites. One on my jawline, one on my collarbone and one under my armpit. They are red, with a raised center and tiny white center. They are incredibly painful, but NOT in the least itchyI read that if you have multiple bites, it is NOT a spider, but rather it is likely bedbugs.has anyone ever heard of bedbug bites that do not itch, but instead are just intensely painful?


I returned home from traveling recently and brought bed bugs home with me. It was a nightmare! No matter what i did i could not get rid of them. After getting the pest controller back 3 times he that they were probably under the carpet and it needed to be ripped up which was going to cost me a lot of money.

Then I came across a low cost bed bug barrier that fit onto the bed legs with a special glue that traps Bed Bugs. The glue lasts over 1 year so will protect from any eggs that hatch later no. There were no chemicals needed and was so much cheaper than using a pest controllers. I simply moved my bed away from the wall, applied Bed Bug Barriers and have never been bitten since.

Thank you!



I live in 4 plex and have found 3 bed bugs in my bed. I found them behind my headboard and have put that in the trash.

Im araid to buy a new bed and have no idea how I got the bugs in the first place. Im stressing out here and hope to find a solution on your site. Im so afraid that I cant even sleep at night!



Just a comment, when I went to the exterminator to buy the insecticide to kill the bed bugs, they told me that cold will not kill bed bugs. That like most other bugs, bed bugs will just go into a hibernation state and once it warms up, they will be on the prowl again. They said that the only thing that will kill them beside chemicals is extreme heathigh setting on a dryerfor 40 minutes.

Also, bed bug barriers on the bottom of your bed legs will not always work as bed bugs have been known to crawl up the wall and fall on their prey if they cannot get up the bed.

Keith Gordon::

The Truth About Bed Bugs From A Pro

I have been in pest control for 16 years. 5 years ago we started to get calls for bed bugs. I have performed over 300 treatments and have found that they are not very hard to get rid of at all. Most companies will tell you that you need to have multiple treatments done. This is not true at all. 80% of the jobs I have done require only one treatment. 99% of them are stopped by the second treatment and, I have never, ever had to treat more than 4 times (that only happened once).

The fact of the matter is, if you find and treat every single bed bug harborage on the first attempt, you will have killed every single bug in the house. Thats just a fact. In fact, many times there is only one harborage. The key is to not miss anything. But, even if you do miss some, if you treat properly, you can still get rid of them. Its just not that big of a deal.

Any insecticide will kill a bed bug very easily. They are not that resistant to insecticides. When I have to go back a second time it is because I missed something or the customer did not allow 30 days for it to work. You must allow 30 days for nature to take its coarse. You have to let the eggs hatch and let the new bed bugs get exposed.

The last thing you want to do is change your behavior. Dont sleep on the couch. They will just go dormant or move to the couch. If they move we hope that they will get into the product but, that does not always work. Just keep sleeping in your bed. I know that doesnt sound good but, you will get much quicker results if you do.

I have never failed and I never will. If you are worried about the products we use, dont be. When they are used according to the EPA label standards, there are no potential health risks. These products are designed for this purpose and affect the insect in ways that can only harm the insect. They have an internal make up that is different from that of mammals. The chemistries take advantage of those differences and thus are void in the human system. Besides, we dont treat the entire mattress. We only treat the crevices that they live in.

Modern insecticides are largely misunderstood. They get a bad rap from the old, outdated, products that we have not used for decades. You have nothing to worry about. Bed bugs are much easier to get rid of than German Roaches. I do it every single day. Its no big deal.

Good Luck!

Keith Gordon::

After writing my last comment I went back and read some of the other comments. I dont want to insult anyone, I just want to get the truth out about bed bugs. Dont get me wrong. Im not trying to sell you anything (unless you live in Iowa. He He!). It just bothers me about how much misinformation is out there. Im here to help. Most home owners are misinformed and even quite a few professionals could use some education. I have spent a large part of the last 5 years studying this subject and, I am somewhat of an expert. I dont want to brag but I know exactly what I am talking about and, my treatments have never failed. I have achieved 100% control in 100% of my accounts.

1. Many of you have paid large amounts of money for a professional treatment. When we first started getting calls for bed bugs we charged quite a bit too because we didnt yet know how little we could get away with and still get control. Now that we have learned that they are very easy to get rid of we have dropped our prices a ton. I can treat an apartment for $250 $450. A house may be a bit more. It depends on how many beds and pieces of furniture we have to treat. Many companies have not lowered their prices yet because they have not learned that bed bug infestations are often very localized. Bed bugs just dont spread all over the place unless you ignore them for months or fail to do a proper treatment. Most of the time we find 2 or 3 small harborages and thats it.

2. If you had a professional treat 3 times, I would bet that he did it correctly but you didnt allow 30 days for all the eggs to hatch. Nothing on Earth will make the eggs hatch other than time. It is also not true that eggs can be killed with insecticides. If you are told that an insecticide will kill the eggs too, you are being lied to. Steam will kill the eggs but insecticides wont When you hear about eggs being killed, what they are talking about is insect growth regulators (IGRs). They do not kill eggs. They keep insects from growing to a mature size. Thus, they will not be able to reproduce. The eggs will hatch no mater what we do (other than steam heat) and, you will see live bed bugs for 30 days. A few days after they are exposed to the products, they will die. There is no way around this. You did not waste your money on the treatment. The only reason your glue traps worked is because the treatment finally worked. I bet if you look at your traps there is nothing in them. I would also like to say that if you were told to rip up your carpet, this guy had no business being in the pest control business. They do not live under carpet. They quite often will get under the very edge of the carpet (which can be very easily treated) but, they do not ever crawl clear under it. I take back what I said earlier. He may not have done the job properly. All he needed to know is that you would see them for at least 30 days. He is incompetent but, it sounds like his treatment finally worked. Like I said, they are easy to get rid of. Even an incompetent technician should be able to get them stopped.

3. It is true that cold is not as effective as heat. You would need to keep the house at sub-zero temps for a week or 2. The fact that you have not seen any since you opened your windows tells me that you must have thrown out whatever they were living on, performed some sort of treatment that finally worked (remember the 30 day rule) or you only transported a few male bed bugs (and no females) into your home. That happens all the time. If 1 or 2 males crawl into your suitcase, and you take them home, the problem will take care of itself. As for steam, if you were successful at steam treating every harborage, you would notice instant results. Steam is effective but if you miss one single egg or pregnant female, you will need to have a residual insecticide in key locations to kill what you missed. I use steam sometimes and it is effective but, it is not a silver bullet.

4. Glue traps under the bed legs will not work if the bugs are already living on your bed. In addition, if your sheets ever touch the ground they can crawl right on to the bed. I also agree that they can drop off the ceiling. This alone will not be effective. Glue traps as part of an integrated pest management program will help but alone they will not stop the problem. Think of it this way. Bed bugs that are not living on the bed are going to keep reproducing wherever their harborage is located. They will just keep getting worse. Eventually one female will find her way into the bed. It is a bad idea to use these as a stand alone control device.

5. The person that said they found bed bugs on the head board and threw the head board away may have solved his/her problem just by getting rid of the harborage. Remember, these things dont just run all over the place. The find a nice little crack or crevice that is close to a blood meal and they move in. Once this harborage is established they only leave their harborage to feed. Bed bugs do not always live on beds and furniture but, many times they do. If that is the case, all you have to do is get rid of whatever they are living on. If you want to keep it, all you have to do is treat it. Its just that simple.

I could go on and on but I think what I have given you should be helpful.


We found bed bugs in my sons room, we treated his room and now we have them in the master bedroom. We are going to treat the entire house, which means to pack and bag everything!!!

We have hardwood floor and we have been told that the bed bugs could be living in some of the cracks in the floor. It was suggested to us that we should do the floors to cover every single crack, meaning, hiring a flooring company to put a clear coat on the floors all over the house. This represents a monumental job, not to mention how expensive that would be.

Are we really at risk to get them back if we dont do the floors?


I cannot get rid of these dang little bugs! i am on a tight budget and all of the things that i have seen to kill bedbugs cost a lot! Please tell me what i can do to get rid of them!


I am wondering if that diatomaceous earth is safe around pets. I know you say its natural but I want to be sure. Will flea powder do the same thing or does it have to be diatomaceous earth?

I have never dealt with this before. I am very frustrated by the fact that I have bites all over my body seemingly overnight. I got a mattress cover and vacuumed do I also need to treat my curtains? This is so frustrating. I cant afford an exterminator.


Hello Kristen,

Try food grade diatomaceous earth which is EPA approved against indoor and outdoor crawling insects and is also FDA approved for internal and external use and has a rating of Food Chemical Codex Grade.


Hello Kristen

You can also go to your local department store, find the section that sells bug killer and look for ChemFree Insectigone. This stuff is silicone dioxide (present as Diatomamaceous Earth). This stuff is safe for pets. I have first hand experience with it due to an ant invasion last year and than bed bugs this year! The only bad thing about DE is I find it clogs your vacuum cleaner.

Janina Kraus::

I discovered my BB problem in Early January. Seems I inherited it from my recent next door neighbor whom after 5 months has moved again. Obviously, though he blunted denied it, he has been transferring it all over the city.

His bed was adjacent to mine, and only divided by a wall. They came through the floorboards or outlets. I have had an exterminator in to treat all furniture, baseboards etc. with pyrethoid and have since discarded the bed, moved to the coach which he previously treated and 2 weeks later I have re-treated with a bottle of the same which he left me as well as treated around every floorboard, outlet and pipes (kitchen and bath), under all furniture and sporadically through out the carpeting and floors with Mother earth/DE.

It has only been 2 more weeks since, and I have noticed a marked improvement. By the way, I took a few days off work, and on my hands an knees, brushed all carpets and picked up eggs (though I dont know if they were spent) and steam cleaned most of the carpeting.

Hoping this will eradicate the situation and murder the bed bugs once and for all!

Please let me know if you think I have done enough. I too am terrified to sleep at night!

Janina (Mississauga/Ontario)


Hey guys, I just wanted to say that our house has been infested to and right now we are having a hard time with pest control.

I thought that if we get the beds out we would be good. we dont have a bad case of it but well enough to where we just dont want them. So we have found more eggs and treating for bed bugs in every room.

So far I have heard getting some chemical and spraying works and that dehydrating them works. Well, lets hope so because I cant take these nasty things anymore!

I just dont understand? Our house is always clean.

Well, Im praying this bed bug treatment really works!



I noticed bed bugs in my studio 3 years ago when I woke up with what seemed mosquito bites and then thought it was a spider bite I cleaned my sleeping area and didnt find anything and then my neighbor complained her daughter had bites and my mother in law was the one that told me they were bed bugs.

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Rare bed bug re-emerges in Florida after 60 years

After disappearing for 60 years, the tropical bed bug has turned up in Florida right here in Brevard County. And these nasty little creatures can spread faster than the ordinary variety bed bug, causing all the same havoc. Video by Local 6 11-10-16

The tropical bed bug is back after 60 years, and it’s landed in Brevard.(Photo: UF/IFAS)

After disappearing for 60 years, thetropical bed bug has turned up in Florida right here in Brevard County.

And these nasty little creatures can spread faster than the ordinary variety bed bug, causing all the same havoc and threat of widespread infestation throughout Florida and the South.

This could mean that this species would develop more quickly, possibly cause an infestationproblem sooner, and also could spread more rapidly, Brittany Campbell, a UF doctoralstudent in entomology, said in a media release.

Campbell and her colleagues at the Universityof Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences confirmed the tropical bed bug’s reemergence, which they recently documented in the journalFlorida Entomologist.

No one had confirmed the tropical variety of bed bug in Florida since the 1930s and 1940s.But in 2015, a family in Merritt Island, near the Ulumay Wildlife Sanctuary, reported the tiny unwanted creatures had infestedtheir home.


Cocoa Beach Public Library eradicates pesky bedbugs

TheUFscientists confirmed the bugs were the tropical species, but so far, Brevard’s isthe only confirmed case inFlorida.

“I personally believe that in Florida, we have all of the right conditions that couldpotentially help spread tropical bed bugs, which is the case in other southern states, Campbell said. As long as you have people traveling and moving bed bugs around, there is a realpotential for this species to spread and establish in homes and other dwellings.

Campbell coauthored the recentjournal article aboutthe tropical bed bug discovery in Brevard.

It’s unknown how the bed bugs got here, but Campbell suspects it could have been via Port Canaveral.

“Alot of pests that do get into Florida, a lot of them do pop up in ports,” she said. “We don’t really know where these bed bugs were introducedfrom.”


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The UFresearchers urge the public to send themsamples of suspected bed bugs for identification, to try and nip the bug’s spread in the bud.

The common bed bug lives throughout the United States and the globe, typically in more temperate climates. Before the 1990s, it kept at low levels for 50 years, via widespread use of DDT and other pesticides, the UF researchers say.

The bed bugs eventually bit back, building resistance to pesticides and resurgingin the late 1990s.

A similar rebound may be at play with the tropical bed bug, the UF researchers say.

Tropical bed bugs biologically mirror common bed bugs, Campbell said. They feed on human blood, so they can cause similar health problems during severe infestations: fear, anxiety,depression, sleeplessnessand itchy, blistery reactions on some people.


‘Florida snow’ returns to blanket the Space Coast

The UF researchers ask the public to send bed bug samples to their laboratory to identify the species.

If they do have a bed bug infestation, because they areso difficult to control, I ask that people consult a pest-control company for a professionalservice,” Campbell said. “There isn’t as much research available on tropical bed bugs as common bed bugs, buthypothetically they should be able to be controlled the same way as the common bed bug speciesbecause their biology/behavior are similar.

Nationwide, health and environmental officials warn of increasingly pesticide-resistant bed bugs and a “pandemic” creature comeback.

DDT nearly wiped out bedbugs after World War II, when people soaked mattresses in the pesticide. The bugs first were reported to show resistance in the 1950s. Then the U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency ban- ned DDT in 1972 because of concerns about cancer and birth defects.

Over the next two decades, Malathion almost took care of the bed bugs that survived DDT. But the wily creatures grew resistant.

In more recent years, they’ve grown more resistant to commonly used pesticides.

Contact Waymer at 321-242-3663 or Follow him on Twitter@JWayEnviroand

To learn about bed bugs, visit

If you want to get bed bugs identified, call the Brevard County Extension at633-1702 or you can mail the bugs in a small vial (preferred so they don’t get crushed) or in a ziplock bag, toBrittany Campbell, 1881 Natural Area Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611.

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Rare bed bug re-emerges in Florida after 60 years

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Hemiptera – Wikipedia

The Hemiptera or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species[2] of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, and shield bugs. They range in size from 1mm (0.04in) to around 15cm (6in), and share a common arrangement of sucking mouthparts.[3] The name “true bugs” is sometimes limited to the suborder Heteroptera.[4] Many insects commonly known as “bugs” belong to other orders; for example, the lovebug is a fly,[5] while the May bug and ladybug are beetles.[6]

Most hemipterans feed on plants, using their sucking and piercing mouthparts to extract plant sap. Some are parasitic while others are predators that feed on other insects or small invertebrates. They live in a wide variety of habitats, generally terrestrial, though some species are adapted to life in or on the surface of fresh water. Hemipterans are hemimetabolous, with young nymphs that somewhat resemble adults. Many aphids are capable of parthenogenesis, producing young from unfertilised eggs; this helps them to reproduce extremely rapidly in favourable conditions.

Humans have interacted with the Hemiptera for millennia. Some species are important agricultural pests, damaging crops by the direct action of sucking sap, but also harming them indirectly by being the vectors of serious viral diseases. Other species have been used for biological control of insect pests. Hemipterans have been cultivated for the extraction of dyestuffs cochineal (also known as carmine) and for shellac. The bed bug is a persistent parasite of humans. Cicadas have been used as food, and have appeared in literature from the Iliad in Ancient Greece.

Hemiptera is the largest order of hemimetabolous insects (not undergoing complete metamorphosis) containing over 75,000 named species; orders with more species all have a pupal stage, Coleoptera (370,000 described species), Lepidoptera (160,000), Diptera (100,000) and Hymenoptera (100,000).[7] The group is very diverse. The majority of species are terrestrial, including a number of important agricultural pests, but some are found in freshwater habitats. These include the water boatmen, pond skaters, and giant water bugs.[8]

The present members of the order Hemiptera (sometimes referred to as Rhynchota) were historically placed into two orders, the so-called Homoptera and Heteroptera/Hemiptera,[9][10] based on differences in wing structure and the position of the rostrum. The order is now more often divided into four or more suborders, after the “Homoptera” were established as paraphyletic. Molecular phylogenetics analysis by Song et al. (2012) supports this cladogram:[9]

The Peloridiidae (Coleorrhyncha) were not included in Song’s analysis.[9] The suggestion that the Auchenorrhyncha are paraphyletic has been debated, and in 2012, the phylogeny was described as “contentious”; a multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Auchenorrhyncha, like the Sternorrhyncha, Heteropterodea, Heteroptera, Fulgoroidea, Cicadomorpha, Membracoidea, Cercopoidea, and Cicadoidea, were all monophyletic.[11]

The closest relatives of hemipterans are the thrips and lice, which collectively form the “hemipteroid assemblage” within the Exopterygota.[14]

The fossil record of hemipterans goes back to the Carboniferous (Moscovian).[15] The oldest fossils are of the Archescytinidae from the Lower Permian and are thought to be basal to the Auchenorrhyncha. Fulguromorpha and Cicadomorpha appear in the Upper Permian, as do Sternorrhyncha of the Psylloidea and Aleurodoidea. Aphids and Coccoids appear in the Triassic. The Coleorrhyncha extend back to the Lower Jurassic.[16] The Heteroptera first appeared in the Triassic.[17]

The defining feature of hemipterans is their “beak” in which the modified mandibles and maxillae form a “stylet” which is sheathed within a modified labium. The stylet is capable of piercing tissues and sucking liquids, while the labium supports it. The stylet contains a channel for the outward movement of saliva and another for the inward movement of liquid food. A salivary pump drives saliva into the prey; a cibarial pump extracts liquid from the prey. Both pumps are powered by substantial dilator muscles in the head. The beak is usually folded under the body when not in use. The diet is typically plant sap, but some hemipterans such as assassin bugs are blood-suckers, and a few are predators.[18][19]

Both herbivorous and predatory hemipterans inject enzymes to begin digestion extraorally (before the food is taken into the body). These enzymes include amylase to hydrolyse starch, polygalacturonase to weaken the tough cell walls of plants, and proteinases to break down proteins.[20]

Although the Hemiptera vary widely in their overall form, their mouthparts form a distinctive “rostrum”. Other insect orders with mouthparts modified into anything like the rostrum and stylets of the Hemiptera include some Phthiraptera, but for other reasons they generally are easy to recognize as non-hemipteran. Similarly, the mouthparts of Siphonaptera, some Diptera and Thysanoptera superficially resemble the rostrum of the Hemiptera, but on closer inspection the differences are considerable. Aside from the mouthparts, various other insects can be confused with Hemiptera, but they all have biting mandibles and maxillae instead of the rostrum. Examples include cockroaches and psocids, both of which have longer, many-segmented antennae, and some beetles, but these have fully hardened forewings which do not overlap.[21]

The forewings of Hemiptera are either entirely membranous, as in the Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha, or partially hardened, as in most Heteroptera. The name “Hemiptera” is from the Greek – (hemi; “half”) and (pteron; “wing”), referring to the forewings of many heteropterans which are hardened near the base, but membranous at the ends. Wings modified in this manner are termed hemelytra (singular: hemelytron), by analogy with the completely hardened elytra of beetles, and occur only in the suborder Heteroptera. In all suborders, the hindwings if present at all are entirely membranous and usually shorter than the forewings.[8] The forewings may be held “roofwise” over the body (typical of Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha),[22] or held flat on the back, with the ends overlapping (typical of Heteroptera).[8] The antennae in Hemiptera typically consist of four or five segments, although they can still be quite long, and the tarsi of the legs have two or three segments.[23]

Many hemipterans can produce sound for communication.[24] The “song” of male cicadas, the loudest of any insect, is produced by tymbal organs on the underside of the abdomen, and is used to attract mates. The tymbals are drumlike disks of cuticle, which are clicked in and out repeatedly, making a sound in the same way as popping the metal lid of a jam jar in and out.[25]

Stridulatory sounds are produced among the aquatic Corixidae and Notonectidae (backswimmers) using tibial combs rubbed across rostral ridges.[26][27]

Hemipterans are hemimetabolous, meaning that they do not undergo metamorphosis, the complete change of form between a larval phase and an adult phase. Instead, their young are called nymphs, and resemble the adults to a greater or less degree. The nymphs moult several times as they grow, and each instar resembles the adult more than the previous one. Wing buds grow in later stage nymphs; the final transformation involves little more than the development of functional wings (if they are present at all) and functioning sexual organs, with no intervening pupal stage as in holometabolous insects.[28]

Many aphids are parthenogenetic during part of the life cycle, such that females can produce unfertilized eggs, which are clones of their mother. All such young are female (thelytoky), so 100% of the population at these times can produce more offspring. Many species of aphid are also viviparous: the young are born live rather than laid as eggs. These adaptations enable aphids to reproduce extremely rapidly when conditions are suitable.[29]

Hemipterans make use of a variety of modes of locomotion including swimming, skating on a water surface and jumping, as well as walking and flying like other insects.

Several families of Heteroptera are water bugs, adapted to an aquatic lifestyle, such as the water boatmen (Corixidae), water scorpions (Nepidae), and backswimmers (Notonectidae). They are mostly predatory, and have legs adapted as paddles to help the animal move through the water.[2] The pondskaters or water striders (Gerridae) are also associated with water, but use the surface tension of standing water to keep them above the surface;[30] they include the sea skaters in the genus Halobates, the only truly marine group of insects.[2]

Marangoni effect propulsion exploits the change in surface tension when a soap-like surfactant is released on to a water surface, in the same way that a toy soap boat propels itself. Water bugs in the genus Microvelia (Veliidae) can travel at up to 17cm/s, twice as fast as they can walk, by this means.[30]

Flight is well developed in the Hemiptera although mostly used for short distance movement and dispersal. Wing development is sometimes related to environmental conditions. In aphids, both winged and wingless forms occur with winged forms produced in greater numbers when food resources are depleted. Aphids and whiteflies can sometimes be transported very long distances by atmospheric updrafts and high altitude winds.[31]

Many Auchenorrhyncha including representatives of the cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, and froghoppers are adapted for jumping (saltation). Treehoppers, for example, jump by rapidly depressing their hind legs. Before jumping, the hind legs are raised and the femora are pressed tightly into curved indentations in the coxae. Treehoppers can attain a take-off velocity of up to 2.7 metres per second and an acceleration of up to 250 g. The instantaneous power output is much greater than that of normal muscle, implying that energy is stored and released to catapult the insect into the air.[32] Cicadas, which are much larger, extend their hind legs for a jump in under a millisecond, again implying elastic storage of energy for sudden release.[33]

In contrast, most Sternorrhyncha females are sedentary or completely sessile, attached to their host plants by their thin feeding stylets which cannot be taken out of the plant quickly.[34]

Most hemipterans are phytophagous, using their sucking and piercing mouthparts to feed on plant sap. These include cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, froghoppers, aphids, whiteflies, scale insects, and some other groups. Some are monophages, being host specific and only found on one plant taxon, others are oligophages, feeding on a few plant groups, while others again are less discriminating polyphages and feed on many species of plant.[19] The relationship between hemipterans and plants appears to be ancient, with piercing and sucking of plants evident in the Early Devonian period.[35]

Hemipterans can dramatically cut the mass of affected plants, especially in major outbreaks. They sometimes also change the mix of plants by predation on seeds or feeding on roots of certain species.[36] Some sap-suckers move from one host to another at different times of year. Many aphids spend the winter as eggs on a woody host plant and the summer as parthogenetically reproducing females on a herbaceous plant.[37]

Phloem sap, which has a higher concentration of sugars and nitrogen, is under positive pressure unlike the more dilute xylem sap. Most of the Sternorrhyncha and a number of Auchenorrhynchan groups feed on phloem. Phloem feeding is common in the Fulgoromorpha, most Cicadellidae and in the Heteroptera. The Typhlocybine Cicadellids specialize in feeding on non-vascular mesophyll tissue of leaves, which is more nutritious than the leaf epidermis. Most Heteroptera also feed on mesophyll tissue where they are more likely to encounter defensive secondary plant metabolites which often leads to the evolution of host specificity.[38] Obligate xylem feeding is a special habit that is found in the Auchenorrhyncha among Cicadoidea, Cercopoidea and in Cicadelline Cicadellids. Some phloem feeders may take to xylem sap facultatively, especially when facing dehydration.[39] Xylem feeders tend to be polyphagous;[40] to overcome the negative pressure of xylem requires a special cibarial pump.[41] Phloem feeding hemiptera typically have symbiotic micro-organisms in their gut that help to convert amino acids. Phloem feeders produce honeydew from their anus. A variety of organisms that feed on honeydew form symbiotic associations with phloem-feeders.[42][43] Phloem sap is a sugary liquid low in amino acids, so insects have to process large quantities to meet their nutritional requirements. Xylem sap is even lower in amino acids and contains monosaccharides rather than sucrose, as well as organic acids and minerals. No digestion is required (except for the hydrolysis of sucrose) and 90% of the nutrients in the xylem sap can be utilised.[19][44] Some phloem sap feeders selectively mix phloem and xylem sap to control the osmotic potential of the liquid consumed.[45] A striking adaptation to a very dilute diet is found in many hemipterans: a filter chamber, a part of the gut looped back on itself as a countercurrent exchanger, which permits nutrients to be separated from excess water.[46] The residue, mostly water with sugars and amino acids, is quickly excreted as sticky “honey dew”, notably from aphids but also from other Auchenorrhycha and Sternorrhyncha.[47]

Some Sternorrhyncha including Psyllids and some aphids are gall formers. These sap-sucking hemipterans inject fluids containing plant hormones into the plant tissues inducing the production of tissue that covers to protects the insect and also act as sinks for nutrition that they feed on. The hackleberry gall psyllid for example, causes a woody gall on the leaf petioles of the hackleberry tree it infests,[48] and the nymph of another psyllid produces a protective lerp out of hardened honeydew.[19]

Most other hemipterans are predatory, feeding on other insects, or even small vertebrates. This is true of many aquatic species which are predatory, either as nymphs or adults.[23] The predatory shield bug for example stabs caterpillars with its beak and sucks out the body fluids.[49] The saliva of predatory heteropterans contains digestive enzymes such as proteinase and phospholipase, and in some species also amylase. The mouthparts of these insects are adapted for predation. There are toothed stylets on the mandibles able to cut into and abrade tissues of their prey. There are further stylets on the maxillae, adapted as tubular canals to inject saliva and to extract the pre-digested and liquified contents of the prey.[50]

Some species attack pest insects and are used in biological control. One of these is the spined soldier bug (Podisus maculiventris) that sucks body fluids from larvae of the Colorado beetle and the Mexican bean beetle.[51]

A few hemipterans are haematophagic (often described as “parasites”[52]), feeding on the blood of larger animals. These include bedbugs and the triatomine kissing bugs of the assassin bug family Reduviidae, which can transmit the dangerous Chagas disease.[2] The first known hemipteran to feed in this way on vertebrates was the extinct assassin bug Triatoma dominicana found fossilized in amber and dating back about twenty million years. Faecal pellets fossilised beside it show that it transmitted a disease-causing Trypanosoma and the amber included hairs of the likely host, a bat.[53]

Some species of ant protect and farm aphids (Sternorrhyncha) and other sap-sucking hemipterans, gathering and eating the honeydew that these hemipterans secrete. The relationship is symbiotic, as both ant and aphid benefit. Ants such as the yellow anthill ant, Lasius flavus, breed aphids of at least four species, Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria, taking eggs with them when they found a new colony; in return, these aphids are obligately associated with the ant, breeding mainly or wholly asexually inside anthills.[54] Ants may also protect the plant bugs from their natural enemies, removing the eggs of predatory beetles and preventing access by parasitic wasps.[19]

Some leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha) are similarly “milked” by ants. In the Corcovado rain forest of Costa Rica, wasps compete with ants to protect and milk leafhoppers; the leafhoppers preferentially give more honeydew, more often, to the wasps, which are larger and may offer better protection.[55]

Hemiptera form prey to predators including vertebrates, such as birds, and other invertebrates such as ladybirds.[56][57] In response, hemipterans have evolved antipredator adaptations. Ranatra may feign death (thanatosis). Others such as Carpocoris purpureipennis secrete toxic fluids to ward off arthropod predators; some Pentatomidae such as Dolycoris are able to direct these fluids at an attacker. Toxic cardenolide compounds are accumulated by the heteropteran Oncopeltus fasciatus when it consumes milkweeds, while the coreid stinkbug Amorbus rubiginosus acquires 2-hexenal from its food plant, Eucalyptus. Some long-legged bugs mimic twigs, rocking to and fro to simulate the motion of a plant part in the wind.[57] The nymph of the Masked hunter bug camouflages itself with sand grains, using its hind legs and tarsal fan to form a double layer of grains, coarser on the outside.[58] The Amazon rain forest cicada Hemisciera maculipennis display bright red deimatic flash coloration on their hindwings when threatened; the sudden contrast helps to startle predators, giving the cicadas time to escape. The coloured patch on the hindwing is concealed at rest by an olive green patch of the same size on the forewing, enabling the insect to switch rapidly from cryptic to deimatic behaviour.[59][a]

Some hemipterans such as firebugs have bold aposematic warning coloration, often red and black, which appear to deter passerine birds.[61][62] Many hemipterans including aphids, scale insects and especially the planthoppers secrete wax to protect themselves from threats such as fungi, parasitoidal insects and predators, as well as abiotic factors like desiccation.[63] Hard waxy coverings are especially important in the sedentary Sternorrhyncha such as scale insects, which have no means of escape from predators; other Sternorrhyncha evade detection and attack by creating and living inside plant galls.[34] Nymphal Cicadoidea and Cercopoidea have glands attached to the Malpighian tubules in their proximal segment that produce mucopolysaccharides, which form the froth around spittlebugs, offering a measure of protection.[64]

Parental care is found in many species of Hemiptera especially in members of the Membracidae and numerous Heteroptera. In many species of shield bug, females stand guard over their egg clusters to protect them from egg parasitoids and predators.[65] In the aquatic Belostomatidae, females lay their eggs on the back of the male which guards the eggs.[66] Protection provided by ants is common in the Auchenorrhyncha.[19]

Although many species of Hemiptera are significant pests of crops and garden plants, including many species of aphid and scale insects, other species are harmless. The damage done is often not so much the deprivation of the plant of its sap, but the fact that they transmit serious viral diseases between plants.[7] They often produce copious amounts of honeydew which encourages the growth of sooty mould.[67] Significant pests include the cottony cushion scale, a pest of citrus fruit trees,[68] the green peach aphid and other aphids which attack crops worldwide and transmit diseases,[69] and jumping plant lice which are often host plant-specific and transmit diseases.[70]

Members of the families Reduviidae, Phymatidae and Nabidae are obligate predators. Some predatory species are used in biological pest control; these include various nabids,[71] and even some members of families that are primarily phytophagous, such as the genus Geocoris in the family Lygaeidae.[72] Other hemipterans are omnivores, alternating between a plant-based and an animal-based diet. For example, Dicyphus hesperus is used to control whitefly on tomatoes but also sucks sap, and if deprived of plant tissues will die even if in the presence of whiteflies.[73]

Other hemipterans have positive uses for humans, such as in the production of the dyestuff carmine (cochineal). The FDA has created guidelines for how to declare when it has been added to a product.[74] The scale insect Dactylopius coccus produces the brilliant red-coloured carminic acid to deter predators. Up to 100,000 scale insects need to be collected and processed to make a kilogram (2.2lbs) of cochineal dye.[75] A similar number of lac bugs are needed to make a kilogram of shellac, a brush-on colourant and wood finish.[76] Additional uses of this traditional product include the waxing of citrus fruits to extend their shelf-life, and the coating of pills to moisture-proof them, provide slow-release or mask the taste of bitter ingredients.[77]

Chagas disease is a modern-day tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by kissing bugs, so-called because they suck human blood from around the lips while a person sleeps.[78]

The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is an external parasite of humans. It lives in bedding and is mainly active at night, feeding on human blood, generally without being noticed.[79][80] Bed bugs mate by traumatic insemination; the male pierces the female’s abdomen and injects his sperm into a secondary genital structure, the spermalege. The sperm travel in the female’s blood (haemolymph) to sperm storage structures (seminal conceptacles); they are released from there to fertilise her eggs inside her ovaries.[80][81]

Some larger hemipterans such as cicadas are used as food in Asian countries such as China,[82] and they are much esteemed in Malawi and other African countries. Insects have a high protein content and good food conversion ratios, but most hemipterans are too small to be a useful component of the human diet.[83] At least nine species of Hemiptera are eaten worldwide.[84]

Cicadas have featured in literature since the time of Homer’s Iliad, and as motifs in decorative art from the Chinese Shang dynasty (1766-1122 B.C.). They are described by Aristotle in his History of Animals and by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History; their mechanism of sound production is mentioned by Hesiod in his poem Works and Days “when the Skolymus flowers, and the tuneful Tettix sitting on his tree in the weary summer season pours forth from under his wings his shrill song”.[85]

Among the bugs, cicadas in particular have been used as money, in folk medicine, to forecast the weather, to provide song (in China), and in folklore and myths around the world.[86]

Large-scale cultivation of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis in the Amazon basin damages freshwater habitats and reduces the diversity of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera.[87] Climate change may be affecting the global migration of hemipterans including the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae. Warming is correlated with the severity of potato leafhopper infestation, so increased warming may worsen infestations in future.[88]

Hemiptera – Wikipedia

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Manitoba, Canada Bed Bug Registry Map Bed Bug …

Dear Bed Bug: We recognize that this issue is a potential problem every day, and do take it very serious. We as consumers have to remember that a Hotel itself does not have bedbugs; it unfortunately is brought to the hotel by a guest, either through their luggage or cloths Continue reading

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BED BUGS – Review of Victoria Inn, Winnipeg, Manitoba …

WINNIPEG The sniffing service dogs that were stolen Monday in Winnipeg are back at work Tuesday. Continue reading

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Bed bug detecting dogs back at work

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2011 Acute illnesses associated with insecticides used to control bed bugsseven states, 20032010. Continue reading

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Human Health Considerations: General Information, Multiple …

If you think you may have bed bugs, these are the essential dos and donts. Make sure you also look at the photos of bed bugs (and signs of bed bugs) and photos of bed bug bites, and the FAQ on detecting whether your problem is bed bugs, or something else Continue reading

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Bed bugs: dos and donts Got bed bugs?

By Matea Tuhtar With bed bug wars being waged elsewhere, Manitoba schools are turning their attention to remaining bug-free. Even though classroom infestations are rate, schools in the U.S. and Canada have reported finding bed bugs on school properties and some Manitoba schools have had close calls. Continue reading

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bed bugs – The Manitoba Teachers’ Society

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Manitoba, Canada Bed Bug Registry Map Bed Bug …

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Invisible Bugs crawling on skin? Strange sensation …

I posted this info before, but it was a reply to someone else’s similar post…

I am a 23 year old healthy male. I recently had a full physical and the results were that I am in above average health. I have no diseases, do not use drugs, but drink on occasion.

Anyways, just started noticing these strange symptoms, within the past few weeks. Nothing “brought it on” so to speak that I can tell of. It’s been going on longer, but less noticeable, now since I do not talk sleeping meds any more, it’s all that I can notice…

Symptoms are strange sensations on my skin. The sensation is it feels like there are “invisible bugs” crawling on, and/or biting my skin. No actual bites, rashes, bugs, sores, or anything of the nature is ever visible. Occurs more at night, while laying down than any other time. The sensation occurs throughout my entire body, no area is exempt from this sensation, and it seems to be completely random, at times I’ll feel it on my arm, then my face, then leg, then arm again, etc, no pattern. The sensation “goes away” once I touch the area (either itch it, brush at it as if there WAS a bug I am brushing off, slap it, or touch it in any way…)

I’ve heard that various forms of dry skin, or minor allergic reactions to soaps could produce such a problem… I have not changed body soaps, shampoos, or laundry detergent types in quite a while (well before such symptoms) I do not have dry skin, or any type of rash.

Ruled out dry skin

I’ve read about “Morgellons” (years ago, before it was a mainstream idea) and don’t think that is what I have… I have no lesions, sores, boils, wounds, or anything of the sort, and no fibers protruding from anything.

Ruling out Morgellons.

I had read about the possibility of it being bed bugs (from reading sites like this online) so I tore my bedroom apart looking for signs of an infestation, and saw NOTHING. My mattress is brand new, the apartment I live in is also pretty close to brand new. Never the less, not a thing was found, searched mattress, box spring, walls near bed, everything.

Ruled out bed bugs.

The only other thing I’ve seen it could be is Restless Leg Syndrome. NOT sure about that, but I did hear that that sensation in the legs is a symptom of that, and that in some cases, the skin crawling sensation can occur all over the body, not just the legs, and still be considered RLS.

Undecided about RLS possibility.

The only other things I have going on that MAY be related, is an upper back pain/numbness… unknown cause. Been going on for years though. No diagnosis.

So basically I’m out of ideas, and about to go insane. It’s terrible at night not being able to sleep because of that feeling, and not being able to sleep with my girlfriend because I keep her awake with my constant moving around and itching…

Continued here:
Invisible Bugs crawling on skin? Strange sensation …

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Think you have bed bugs? Some dos and donts

If you think you may have bed bugs, these are the essential dos and donts. Make sure you also look at the photos of bed bugs (and signs of bed bugs) and photos of bed bug bites, and the FAQ on detecting whether your problem is bed bugs, or something else. If you suspect there are bed bugs where you sleep, dont begin sleeping in another bed, on the sofa. Do not go to stay with someone else. The bugs may follow you to your guest room or sofa, and then it will be much harder to get rid of them. They may hitch a ride to your relatives home, and you can cause them to become infested. (All of these situations have happened to Bedbuggers we know.) Also, staying outside of your home means the bugs may become dormant. Were told they may live without feeding for up to 18 months. When you come back, they can begin biting you again. So staying in your home during treatment, and sleeping in your usual bed, is the way to kill bed bugs. Read our FAQs and sleep there while youre getting a Pest Control Operator (PCO) to treat your home. Once you are being treated, you must remain in the bedyou are the bait, attracting bugs to the poison and their deaths. If you isolate the bed, they need not bite you. (The FAQ on isolating the bed talks about the pros and cons of doing that).

Do save any bed bugs you find. Do not part with these you may need to show them to landlords, pest control professionals, and so on. Entomologists at colleges or science museums in your town may identify these, and a pest control company can too. Pick it up with clear packing tape, and tape it to an index card. Or put it in a clear sealed ziplock or jar in the freezer. Dont assume youll see lots of them, some people dont.

Do rule out other possible conditions, like folliculitis, scabies, and bites from other insects. Suspected bed bug bites sometimes turn out to be one of these other conditions. Doctors cannot diagnose bed bug bites with any certainty. The FAQs may help. Be warned, though, that many of us are told by doctors that we do or do not have bed bugs, and later find they are wrong.

Dont assume you are the only one being bitten. Remember that some people do not react to bed bug bites at all. Bed bug bites are an allergic reaction, and reactions vary from nothing to serious allergic reactions. Research released in 2010 by Dr. Michael Potter suggests 70% of people do react, and 30% of people do not react to bed bug bites.

Dont start throwing your bed and other furniture out. As per the FAQs, you can cover and isolate the bed. (You may wish to wait until a PCO has started treating before covering the mattress in an encasement.) Most furniture, including mattresses and sofas, can be treated by a PCO, and you can ask the PCO if throwing them out is necessary. It usually isnt necessary or recommended because tossing furniture and other items out can just lead to spreading bed bugs as well as emptying your home of furnishings. If there is a good reason to get rid of something, your pest management professional can help you do it safely, so as not to spread the bugs around your home or building, and so that others do not pick up infested items.

Dont start buying a load of chemicals and treating yourself. We have FAQs about choosing a good pest control firm and about why doing your own pest control in lieu of a PCO is not a good idea. Yes, sometimes supplementing a PCOs work makes sense, but only if they are fully on board with what youre doing. Remember, pesticides have different qualities (repellents, contact killers, residual killers, growth regulators, etc.) Bed bugs are probably the most complicated pests youve ever encountered at home. If you start spraying pesticides, you may disperse the bugs, and the professionals may have trouble treating them. You may spread them around your home. Get good professional help and follow instructions. Some pros wont treat a home if you have already done so.

Do not, absolutely do not release a fogger or bug bomb. Do not allow your landlord to do so. Do not allow a so-called exterminator to do so. Bug bombs / foggers do not work for bed bugs, and in fact, will spread them. Your problem will be magnified. Trust me!

Dont start bagging everything you own. With the exception of washed and dried clothing (according to specific instructions your PCO gives you), do not seal up everything you own in bags. Some PCOs will want you to inspect, vacuum, and seal all your possessions in bags. Most wont. Following their advice is crucial, since they know what theyre using on your problem. If you decide to bag things, you may be sealing away bed bugs and this is only a way of dealing with the problem if you put these items in storage for 18 months, unopened. Instead, most PCOs will vigorously fight your problem, and bed bugs will be attracted out of your possessions and towards poisons which will kill them. We have a FAQ on this also: How do I prepare for pest control treatment? Should I put everything in bags?

Do start dealing with your clothing and linens if the PCO requires this. Though you should not simply seal your possessions in bags (as above), it is probably a good idea to start working on clothing and bedding, if the PCO instructs you to do this. Note that some reputable pest control operators do not require most clients to treat all their clothing and linens. If your PCO does not require it, then I would skip it. You should take clothing and other items, wash on hot and and dry them on hot. Remember, driers vary as to their strength and how long they take with what size of load. Dont stuff the machines. My personal method is that items should at least be dried on hot for 20 minutes after they appear to be fully dry and very hot. Note that if you start with clean items, you only need to dry them on hot: this is a huge savings to time and energy. Starting with clean, dry items, running the hot dryer for 20 minutes should suffice. (You PCO may not be aware of research proving that a hot dryer alone is enough.) Keep in mind that pillows, comforters, down coats, and other thick items may take longer to dry. Heres the key: after washing and drying, bag items in sealed, airtight bags, and do not remove them until use. Our FAQs give more explicit suggestions. Dry cleaning is theoretically a bed bug killer, but impractical since most dry cleaners may not be equipped to deal with bed bugs, and you have to disclose that the items have been exposed to bed bugs.

Dont assume bed bugs are only in your bed. While bed frames and mattresses and headboards are the most likely location for bed bugs, they can and do often hide out in sofas and other soft furniture, electrical sockets (behind plates), light fixtures, baseboards, floor crevices, and other crevices in the bedroom and living room. Bed bugs are occasionally found in kitchens and bathrooms. This should not make you panic: most cases, especially smaller ones, are quite concentrated, usually 10-20 feet from where people sleep (or where they sit for extended periods). However, if a PCO tells you bed bugs are not found in living rooms, realize that many Bedbuggers have infested sofas, computer chairs, and so on. Dont believe that bed bugs only bite at night. They prefer a sleeping, stationary host who is fast asleep. But if theyre hungry, theyll take what they can get. You can be bitten while in a chair, awake.

Once you get a PCO treating your place, dont assume this will be solved overnight. If your PCO treats and you are still being bitten, this is normal. The bites should decrease and eventually disappear. If you see bed bugs or are bitten, do have another treatment about two weeks after the first. Do insist the PCO repeat treatment every two weeks until you see no new signs of bed bugs (like bed bug feces stains in the bed). Do not assume youve got a bad PCO because it takes three treatments to solve your problem. This, unfortunately, is common, even if you follow all the advice. However, do ask questions, from the first treatment on, and take notes: what is the PCO using? What does each substance do? Make a note of where each substance is applied, and how long the process takes. If a few treatments go by and you are suspicious, post a question in our forums with these details experienced Bedbuggers and reputable PCOs read this site and may be able to offer advice as to whether youre getting good service or not. Stay on top of whats happening, but be honest with the PCO about what youre doing, and ask what you can do to support treatment. If they are good, they will welcome your involvement. Vacuuming every day in some cases is a good idea, in others, it may sabotage the work of certain substances left down to kill bed bugs. The same is true of bagging everything you own, as above. Never assume that you should do what someone online is doing, since they may be working with a different pest control protocol.

Do use bed bug monitors to try and determine if bed bugs are present initially and after treatment. We have a FAQ on bed bug monitors. The beenfit to monitors is that youre more likely to catch a sample or see signs if you are using monitors.

Last updated 3/16/2015.

Comments for this page are now closed. Please post a message on our Bedbugger Forums if you have questions or need support. If you have suggestions for improving this FAQ, or other comments, please contact me.

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Think you have bed bugs? Some dos and donts

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